Next Article in Journal
Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Toxin PnTx2-1 (δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a) Is a Modulator of Sodium Channel Gating
Next Article in Special Issue
Snake Venoms in Cancer Therapy: Past, Present and Future
Previous Article in Journal
Structural and Functional Investigation and Pharmacological Mechanism of Trichosanthin, a Type 1 Ribosome-Inactivating Protein
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pharmacokinetic Properties of the Nephrotoxin Orellanine in Rats
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2018, 10(8), 336;

The Development of Toad Toxins as Potential Therapeutic Agents

Menzies Health Institute Queensland and School of Medical Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25701, USA
School of Physiotherapy, Australian Catholic University, Banyo, QLD 4014, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom and Toxin as Targeted Therapy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [920 KB, uploaded 20 August 2018]   |  


Toxins from toads have long been known to contain rich chemicals with great pharmaceutical potential. Recent studies have shown more than 100 such chemical components, including peptides, steroids, indole alkaloids, bufogargarizanines, organic acids, and others, in the parotoid and skins gland secretions from different species of toads. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), processed toad toxins have been used for treating various diseases for hundreds of years. Modern studies, including both experimental and clinical trials, have also revealed the molecular mechanisms that support the development of these components into medicines for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers. More recently, there have been studies that demonstrated the therapeutic potential of toxins from other species of toads, such as Australian cane toads. Previous reviews mostly focused on the pharmaceutical effects of the whole extracts from parotoid glands or skins of toads. However, to fully understand the molecular basis of toad toxins in their use for therapy, a comprehensive understanding of the individual compound contained in toad toxins is necessary; thus, this paper seeks to review the recent studies of some typical compounds frequently identified in toad secretions. View Full-Text
Keywords: toad toxins; Chansu; Huachansu; cane toad; bufadienolides; indolealkylamines; inflammation; cancer; obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) toad toxins; Chansu; Huachansu; cane toad; bufadienolides; indolealkylamines; inflammation; cancer; obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Qi, J.; Zulfiker, A.H.M.; Li, C.; Good, D.; Wei, M.Q. The Development of Toad Toxins as Potential Therapeutic Agents. Toxins 2018, 10, 336.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top