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Energy-Efficient Joint Base Station Switching and Power Allocation for Smart Grid Based Hybrid-Powered CoMP-Enabled HetNet

1
Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya 63100, Malaysia
2
School of Information Technology, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Bellavista
Future Internet 2021, 13(8), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080213
Received: 24 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
With the rapid proliferation of wireless traffic and the surge of various data-intensive applications, the energy consumption of wireless networks has tremendously increased in the last decade, which not only leads to more CO2 emission, but also results in higher operating expenditure. Consequently, energy efficiency (EE) has been regarded as an essential design criterion for future wireless networks. This paper investigates the problem of EE maximisation for a cooperative heterogeneous network (HetNet) powered by hybrid energy sources via joint base station (BS) switching (BS-Sw) and power allocation using combinatorial optimisation. The cooperation among the BSs is achieved through a coordinated multi-point (CoMP) technique. Next, to overcome the complexity of combinatorial optimisation, Lagrange dual decomposition is applied to solve the power allocation problem and a sub-optimal distance-based BS-Sw scheme is proposed. The main advantage of the distance-based BS-Sw is that the algorithm is tuning-free as it exploits two dynamic thresholds, which can automatically adapt to various user distributions and network deployment scenarios. The optimal binomial and random BS-Sw schemes are also studied to serve as benchmarks. Further, to solve the non-fractional programming component of the EE maximisation problem, a low-complexity and fast converging Dinkelbach’s method is proposed. Extensive simulations under various scenarios reveal that in terms of EE, the proposed joint distance-based BS-Sw and power allocation technique applied to the cooperative and harvesting BSs performs around 15–20% better than the non-cooperative and non-harvesting BSs and can achieve near-optimal performance compared to the optimal binomial method. View Full-Text
Keywords: combinatorial optimisation; CoMP-JP; energy sharing; energy efficiency; hybrid power; smart grid; heterogeneous networks combinatorial optimisation; CoMP-JP; energy sharing; energy efficiency; hybrid power; smart grid; heterogeneous networks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Euttamarajah, S.; Ng, Y.H.; Tan, C.K. Energy-Efficient Joint Base Station Switching and Power Allocation for Smart Grid Based Hybrid-Powered CoMP-Enabled HetNet. Future Internet 2021, 13, 213. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080213

AMA Style

Euttamarajah S, Ng YH, Tan CK. Energy-Efficient Joint Base Station Switching and Power Allocation for Smart Grid Based Hybrid-Powered CoMP-Enabled HetNet. Future Internet. 2021; 13(8):213. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080213

Chicago/Turabian Style

Euttamarajah, Shornalatha, Yin H. Ng, and Chee K. Tan. 2021. "Energy-Efficient Joint Base Station Switching and Power Allocation for Smart Grid Based Hybrid-Powered CoMP-Enabled HetNet" Future Internet 13, no. 8: 213. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080213

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