- freely available
Future Internet 2019, 11(11), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11110239
- A new IoMT system is proposed that describes the journey of the data from the human body to the health cloud over four tiers.
- We propose a new protocol that allows neighbouring WBSNs to cooperate with each other through different communication technologies and devices within the IoMT system. The proposed protocol is called the ‘inter-WBSN cooperation in IoMT system’, which is abbreviated as ‘IWC-IoMT’.
- A mathematical model of the proposed protocol is formulated and derived for two important metrics: outage probability and energy efficiency. The mathematical model describes the transmission of the data between WBSNs and beyond their communication range.
- We reveal that the proposed IWC-IoMT protocol can achieve better performance in terms of the outage probability and energy efficiency of the IoMT system.
2. WBSN Networks Architecture
2.1. WBSN in IoMT-based Health Network
- The WBSN tier (tier 1): In this tier, sensors might be attached directly to the human body or sewed into fabric, or embedded inside the human body. Such sensors can be EEG, ECG, or EMG, etc. The data recorded via sensors are transmitted to the coordinator node via wireless 802.15.6 standard, after that the CN transfer what were transmitted by the sensors to the next tier over one of the wireless technology or cables.
- Smart\wireless technology interface tier (tier 2): In this tier, smart devices are utilized, (i.e., smart phone, laptop or tablet). In this tier, data are inspected and analysed, then the data transferred to tier 3 over one of the smart devices or one of the chosen wireless communication technologies (i.e., Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or cellular base-station). Tier 2 represents the bridge tier that is join the WBSN to the infrastructure internet, and some time located within WBSN area.
- Infrastructure internet tier (tier 3): This level bridge the gap between the tier 2 and tier 4 via exiting backbone communication technology.
- Care-Services tier (tier 4): In this tier, the data is received and forwarded to the intelligent server (IS), the intelligent server is stored the data, analysed and forwarded to the suitable service, such as emergency response, a physician, or family.
2.2. Proposed Inter-WBSN Cooperation Network Architecture
- Each sensor gathers the data then forwards it to the second tier (T2) over two phases, as depicted in Figure 2.
- In the first phase, sensor 1 of the WBAN1 broadcasts the gathered data to CN1 and CN2. In the second phase, CN1 and CN2 transmit what is received from sensor 1 to the tier 2 device (T2).
- The devices in T2 combine the received signals via maximal ratio combing (MRC) .
3. Link and Outage Probability Analysis
- is the transmission power;
- is the noise power;
- is a complex Gaussian random variable with unit variance;
- is given as ;
- is the distance between two nodes;
- is the total gain of the transmit and receive antennae;
- is the wavelength;
- is the noise figure at the receiver; and
- is the link margin.
Outage Probability Analysis of IWC-IoMT
4. Energy Efficiency of the IWC-IoMT
5. Simulation and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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