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Open AccessArticle

Breath-Triggered Drug Release System for Preterm Neonates

1
Division of Translational Biomedical Engineering, Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM, 30625 Hannover, Germany
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
3
Institute of Microtechnology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nunzio Denora and Rosa Maria Iacobazzi
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(5), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050657
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 19 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
A major disadvantage of inhalation therapy with continuous drug delivery is the loss of medication during expiration. Developing a breath-triggered drug release system can highly decrease this loss. However, there is currently no breath-triggered drug release directly inside the patient interface (nasal prong) for preterm neonates available due to their high breathing frequency, short inspiration time and low tidal volume. Therefore, a nasal prong with an integrated valve releasing aerosol directly inside the patient interface increasing inhaled aerosol efficiency is desirable. We integrated a miniaturized aerosol valve into a nasal prong, controlled by a double-stroke cylinder. Breathing was simulated using a test lung for preterm neonates on CPAP respiratory support. The inhalation flow served as a trigger signal for the valve, releasing humidified surfactant. Particle detection was performed gravimetrically (filter) and optically (light extinction). The integrated miniaturized aerosol valve enabled breath-triggered drug release inside the patient interface with an aerosol valve response time of <25 ms. By breath-triggered release of the pharmaceutical aerosol as a bolus during inhalation, the inhaled aerosol efficiency was increased by a factor of >4 compared to non-triggered release. This novel nasal prong with integrated valve allows breath-triggered drug release directly inside the nasal prong with short response time.
Keywords: aerosol; breath-triggered drug release; nasal prong; preterm neonate; real-time measurement; surfactant aerosol; breath-triggered drug release; nasal prong; preterm neonate; real-time measurement; surfactant
MDPI and ACS Style

Wiegandt, F.C.; Froriep, U.P.; Müller, F.; Doll, T.; Dietzel, A.; Pohlmann, G. Breath-Triggered Drug Release System for Preterm Neonates. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 657. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050657

AMA Style

Wiegandt FC, Froriep UP, Müller F, Doll T, Dietzel A, Pohlmann G. Breath-Triggered Drug Release System for Preterm Neonates. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(5):657. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050657

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wiegandt, Felix C.; Froriep, Ulrich P.; Müller, Fabian; Doll, Theodor; Dietzel, Andreas; Pohlmann, Gerhard. 2021. "Breath-Triggered Drug Release System for Preterm Neonates" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 5: 657. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050657

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