Modifications in Vaginal Microbiota and Their Influence on Drug Release: Challenges and Opportunities
AbstractVaginal drug delivery represents an attractive alternative to achieve local and systemic effects due to the high contact surface exposed, the mucoadhesion of the epithelium, and the high innervation that facilitates the absorption of drugs into the bloodstream. However, despite the confinement of the vaginal cavity, it is an organ with a highly variable microenvironment. Mechanical alterations such as coitus, or chemical changes such as pH and viscosity, modify the release of drugs. In addition, changes in vaginal microbiota can influence the entire vaginal microenvironment, thus determining the disposition of drugs in the vaginal cavity and decreasing their therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the influence of microorganisms on vaginal homeostasis can change the pre-established scenario for the application of drugs. This review aims to provide an explanation of normal vaginal microbiota, the factors that modify it, its involvement in the administration of drugs, and new proposals for the design of novel pharmaceutical dosage forms. Finally, challenges and opportunities directed toward the conception of new effective formulations are discussed.
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Leyva-Gómez, G.; Prado-Audelo, M.L.D.; Ortega-Peña, S.; Mendoza-Muñoz, N.; Urbán-Morlán, Z.; González-Torres, M.; González-Del Carmen, M.; Figueroa-González, G.; Reyes-Hernández, O.D.; Cortés, H. Modifications in Vaginal Microbiota and Their Influence on Drug Release: Challenges and Opportunities. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 217.
Leyva-Gómez G, Prado-Audelo MLD, Ortega-Peña S, Mendoza-Muñoz N, Urbán-Morlán Z, González-Torres M, González-Del Carmen M, Figueroa-González G, Reyes-Hernández OD, Cortés H. Modifications in Vaginal Microbiota and Their Influence on Drug Release: Challenges and Opportunities. Pharmaceutics. 2019; 11(5):217.Chicago/Turabian Style
Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Prado-Audelo, María L Del; Ortega-Peña, Silvestre; Mendoza-Muñoz, Néstor; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; González-Torres, Maykel; González-Del Carmen, Manuel ; Figueroa-González, Gabriela; Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D; Cortés, Hernán. 2019. "Modifications in Vaginal Microbiota and Their Influence on Drug Release: Challenges and Opportunities." Pharmaceutics 11, no. 5: 217.
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