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Modifications in Vaginal Microbiota and Their Influence on Drug Release: Challenges and Opportunities

1
Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Posgrado en Tecnología Farmacéutica, FES-Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli 54740, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Infectología, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra, Mexico City, Mexico
4
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Colima, Colima 28400, Mexico
5
CONACyT-Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra, Ciudad de México 14389, Mexico
6
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de México 14380, Mexico
7
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Veracruzana, Ciudad Mendoza, Veracruz 94740, Mexico
8
CONACyT-Laboratorio de Genómica, Dirección de Investigación, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología. Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan, Sección XVI, 14080 Ciudad de México, Mexico
9
Laboratorio de Biología Molecular del Cáncer, UMIEZ, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 09230, Mexico
10
Laboratorio de Medicina Genómica, Departamento de Genética, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra, Ciudad de México 14389, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(5), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11050217
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaginal Drug Delivery for Local and Systemic Applications)
PDF [1001 KB, uploaded 6 May 2019]

Abstract

Vaginal drug delivery represents an attractive alternative to achieve local and systemic effects due to the high contact surface exposed, the mucoadhesion of the epithelium, and the high innervation that facilitates the absorption of drugs into the bloodstream. However, despite the confinement of the vaginal cavity, it is an organ with a highly variable microenvironment. Mechanical alterations such as coitus, or chemical changes such as pH and viscosity, modify the release of drugs. In addition, changes in vaginal microbiota can influence the entire vaginal microenvironment, thus determining the disposition of drugs in the vaginal cavity and decreasing their therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the influence of microorganisms on vaginal homeostasis can change the pre-established scenario for the application of drugs. This review aims to provide an explanation of normal vaginal microbiota, the factors that modify it, its involvement in the administration of drugs, and new proposals for the design of novel pharmaceutical dosage forms. Finally, challenges and opportunities directed toward the conception of new effective formulations are discussed.
Keywords: vaginal drug delivery; vaginal microbiota; biofilm; drug release; hydrogels; pH sensitive hydrogels vaginal drug delivery; vaginal microbiota; biofilm; drug release; hydrogels; pH sensitive hydrogels
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Leyva-Gómez, G.; Prado-Audelo, M.L.D.; Ortega-Peña, S.; Mendoza-Muñoz, N.; Urbán-Morlán, Z.; González-Torres, M.; González-Del Carmen, M.; Figueroa-González, G.; Reyes-Hernández, O.D.; Cortés, H. Modifications in Vaginal Microbiota and Their Influence on Drug Release: Challenges and Opportunities. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 217.

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