Next Article in Journal
Current Trends in Cancer Nanotheranostics: Metallic, Polymeric, and Lipid-Based Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Chitosan-Based Mucoadhesive Vaginal Tablets for Controlled Release of the Anti-HIV Drug Tenofovir
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cyclodextrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks (CD-MOFs) in Pharmaceutics and Biomedicine
Open AccessReview

Microencapsulation and Nanoencapsulation Using Supercritical Fluid (SCF) Techniques

by Soon Hong Soh 1 and Lai Yeng Lee 1,2,*
1
Newcastle Research and Innovation Institute, 80 Jurong East Street 21, #05-04 Devan Nair Institute for Employment & Employability, Singapore 609607, Singapore
2
Newcastle University in Singapore, 537 Clementi Road, #06-01 SIT [email protected] Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599493, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11010021
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nano Encapsulation Techniques)
The unique properties of supercritical fluids, in particular supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2), provide numerous opportunities for the development of processes for pharmaceutical applications. One of the potential applications for pharmaceuticals includes microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation for drug delivery purposes. Supercritical CO2 processes allow the design and control of particle size, as well as drug loading by utilizing the tunable properties of supercritical CO2 at different operating conditions (flow ratio, temperature, pressures, etc.). This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the processes and techniques using supercritical fluid processing based on the supercritical properties, the role of supercritical carbon dioxide during the process, and the mechanism of formulation production for each process discussed. The considerations for equipment configurations to achieve the various processes described and the mechanisms behind the representative processes such as RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical solutions), SAS (supercritical antisolvent), SFEE (supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions), PGSS (particles from gas-saturated solutions), drying, and polymer foaming will be explained via schematic representation. More recent developments such as fluidized bed coating using supercritical CO2 as the fluidizing and drying medium, the supercritical CO2 spray drying of aqueous solutions, as well as the production of microporous drug releasing devices via foaming, will be highlighted in this review. Development and strategies to control and optimize the particle morphology, drug loading, and yield from the major processes will also be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide; microencapsulation; microporous foam; supercritical drying; supercritical anti-solvent supercritical carbon dioxide; microencapsulation; microporous foam; supercritical drying; supercritical anti-solvent
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Soh, S.H.; Lee, L.Y. Microencapsulation and Nanoencapsulation Using Supercritical Fluid (SCF) Techniques. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop