Next Article in Journal
Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance
Next Article in Special Issue
Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses
Previous Article in Journal
Learning from Ebola Virus: How to Prevent Future Epidemics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genome Characterization, Prevalence and Distribution of a Macula-Like Virus from Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2015, 7(7), 3798-3815;

The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome

Agroscope, Swiss Bee Research Centre, Schwarzenburgstrasse 161, CH-3003 Bern, Switzerland
Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala 750 07, Sweden
Institute of Bee Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Fort Collins Science Center, USGS, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elke Genersch and Sebastian Gisder
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [827 KB, uploaded 9 July 2015]   |  


A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74) and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame). The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apis mellifera; filamentous virus; genome annotation Apis mellifera; filamentous virus; genome annotation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gauthier, L.; Cornman, S.; Hartmann, U.; Cousserans, F.; Evans, J.D.; de Miranda, J.R.; Neumann, P. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome. Viruses 2015, 7, 3798-3815.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top