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Open AccessCommunication
Viruses 2015, 7(5), 2507-2517;

IPNV Antigen Uptake and Distribution in Atlantic Salmon Following Oral Administration

Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., Oslo 0033, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Curt Hagedorn
Received: 30 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [943 KB, uploaded 21 May 2015]   |  


One impediment to the successful oral vaccination in fish is the hostile stomach environment that antigens must cross. Furthermore, uptake of antigens from the gut to systemic distribution is required for induction of systemic immunity, the dynamics of which are poorly understood. In the present study, groups of Atlantic salmon parr were intubated with live or inactivated infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), either orally or anally. At 1, 24 and 72 h post infection (p.i.), the fish were sacrificed. Serum was used for assessing IPNV by ELISA, while formalin-fixed head-kidney, spleen, liver and intestine tissues were used for the demonstration of antigens by immunohistochemistry. Both live and inactivated IPNV antigens were observed in enterocytes of the intestines and in immune cells of the head-kidneys and spleens of all groups. In the liver, no antigens were observed in any of the groups. Significantly higher serum antigen OD values (p < 0.04) were observed in orally- compared to anally-intubated fish. By contrast, no difference (p = 0.05) was observed in tissue antigens between these groups by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in serum antigens was observed between groups intubated with live and inactivated IPNV, while in tissues, significantly more antigens (p < 0.03) were observe in the latter compared to the former. These findings demonstrate that both live and inactivated IPNV are taken up by enterocytes in the intestines of Atlantic salmon, likely by receptor-mediated mechanisms. Higher IPNV uptake by the oral compared to anal route suggests that both the anterior and posterior intestines are important for the uptake of the virus and that IPNV is resistant to gastric degradation of the Atlantic salmon stomach. View Full-Text
Keywords: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV); Atlantic salmon; oral; anal; uptake infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV); Atlantic salmon; oral; anal; uptake

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Chen, L.; Evensen, Ø.; Mutoloki, S. IPNV Antigen Uptake and Distribution in Atlantic Salmon Following Oral Administration. Viruses 2015, 7, 2507-2517.

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