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Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1974-1991;
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-based Vaccines)
Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; cross protection; universal influenza vaccine influenza; cross protection; universal influenza vaccine
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.; Wang, L.; Compans, R.W.; Wang, B.-Z. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon. Viruses 2014, 6, 1974-1991.

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