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Comparison of the Mechanisms of Drug Resistance among HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C
Open AccessReview

Clinical Management of HIV Drug Resistance

HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI, NIH, Building 10 Rm 5A06, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2011, 3(4), 347-378;
Received: 9 March 2011 / Accepted: 30 March 2011 / Published: 14 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Drug Resistance 2010)
Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection has resulted in profound reductions in viremia and is associated with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. Therapy is not curative, however, and prolonged therapy is complicated by drug toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance. Management of clinical drug resistance requires in depth evaluation, and includes extensive history, physical examination and laboratory studies. Appropriate use of resistance testing provides valuable information useful in constructing regimens for treatment-experienced individuals with viremia during therapy. This review outlines the emergence of drug resistance in vivo, and describes clinical evaluation and therapeutic options of the individual with rebound viremia during therapy.
Keywords: HIV; drug resistance testing; clinical management HIV; drug resistance testing; clinical management
MDPI and ACS Style

Cortez, K.J.; Maldarelli, F. Clinical Management of HIV Drug Resistance. Viruses 2011, 3, 347-378.

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