Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Animal Models for Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Transmission
Previous Article in Journal
Hepatitis B and C Viruses and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
siRNA for Influenza Therapy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Virology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-3678, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2010, 2(8), 1510-1529;
Received: 14 May 2010 / Revised: 9 July 2010 / Accepted: 21 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivirals Against Influenza)
PDF [534 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine), although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease), the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: combination therapy; antivirals; influenza virus; neuraminidase inhibitors; oseltamivir; amantadine; ribavirin combination therapy; antivirals; influenza virus; neuraminidase inhibitors; oseltamivir; amantadine; ribavirin

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Govorkova, E.A.; Webster, R.G. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza. Viruses 2010, 2, 1510-1529.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top