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Article

Torque Teno Virus Primary Infection Kinetics in Early Childhood

1
Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
2
MediCity, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3
Immunogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
4
PEDEGO Research Unit, Medical Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
5
Centre for Population Health Research and Research Centre for Integrated Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
6
Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland
7
Helsinki University Hospital Laboratory (HUSLAB), 00290 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Finnish Institute of Welfare and Health, 00271 Helsinki, Finland.
Current address: Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland.
§
Current address: Hologic Inc., 02150 Espoo, Finland.
Current affiliation: Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.
Academic Editor: Giorgio Palù
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061277
Received: 28 April 2022 / Revised: 25 May 2022 / Accepted: 9 June 2022 / Published: 11 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Human Virology and Viral Diseases)
Human torque teno viruses (TTVs) are a diverse group of small nonenveloped viruses with circular, single-stranded DNA genomes. These elusive anelloviruses are harbored in the blood stream of most humans and have thus been considered part of the normal flora. Whether the primary infection as a rule take(s) place before or after birth has been debated. The aim of our study was to determine the time of TTV primary infection and the viral load and strain variations during infancy and follow-up for up to 7 years. TTV DNAs were quantified in serial serum samples from 102 children by a pan-TTV quantitative PCR, and the amplicons from representative time points were cloned and sequenced to disclose the TTV strain diversity. We detected an unequivocal rise in TTV-DNA prevalence, from 39% at 4 months of age to 93% at 2 years; all children but one, 99%, became TTV-DNA positive before age 4 years. The TTV-DNA quantities ranged from 5 × 101 to 4 × 107 copies/mL, both within and between the children. In conclusion, TTV primary infections occur mainly after birth, and increase during the first two years with high intra- and interindividual variation in both DNA quantities and virus strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: anellovirus; TTV primary infection; infants; genoprevalence; viremia anellovirus; TTV primary infection; infants; genoprevalence; viremia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Väisänen, E.; Kuisma, I.; Mäkinen, M.; Ilonen, J.; Veijola, R.; Toppari, J.; Hedman, K.; Söderlund-Venermo, M. Torque Teno Virus Primary Infection Kinetics in Early Childhood. Viruses 2022, 14, 1277. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061277

AMA Style

Väisänen E, Kuisma I, Mäkinen M, Ilonen J, Veijola R, Toppari J, Hedman K, Söderlund-Venermo M. Torque Teno Virus Primary Infection Kinetics in Early Childhood. Viruses. 2022; 14(6):1277. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061277

Chicago/Turabian Style

Väisänen, Elina, Inka Kuisma, Marjaana Mäkinen, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Jorma Toppari, Klaus Hedman, and Maria Söderlund-Venermo. 2022. "Torque Teno Virus Primary Infection Kinetics in Early Childhood" Viruses 14, no. 6: 1277. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061277

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