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Experimental Methods to Study the Pathogenesis of Human Enteric RNA Viruses

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
2
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Akio Adachi and Masako Nomaguchi
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060975
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
Every year, millions of children are infected with viruses that target the gastrointestinal tract, causing acute gastroenteritis and diarrheal illness. Indeed, approximately 700 million episodes of diarrhea occur in children under five annually, with RNA viruses norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus serving as major causative pathogens. Numerous methodological advancements in recent years, including the establishment of novel cultivation systems using enteroids as well as the development of murine and other animal models of infection, have helped provide insight into many features of viral pathogenesis. However, many aspects of enteric viral infections remain elusive, demanding further study. Here, we describe the different in vitro and in vivo tools available to explore different pathophysiological attributes of human enteric RNA viruses, highlighting their advantages and limitations depending upon the question being explored. In addition, we discuss key areas and opportunities that would benefit from further methodological progress. View Full-Text
Keywords: human norovirus; human rotavirus; human astrovirus; gastroenteritis; immortalized cell lines; human enteroids human norovirus; human rotavirus; human astrovirus; gastroenteritis; immortalized cell lines; human enteroids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aggarwal, S.; Hassan, E.; Baldridge, M.T. Experimental Methods to Study the Pathogenesis of Human Enteric RNA Viruses. Viruses 2021, 13, 975. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060975

AMA Style

Aggarwal S, Hassan E, Baldridge MT. Experimental Methods to Study the Pathogenesis of Human Enteric RNA Viruses. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):975. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060975

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aggarwal, Somya, Ebrahim Hassan, and Megan T. Baldridge 2021. "Experimental Methods to Study the Pathogenesis of Human Enteric RNA Viruses" Viruses 13, no. 6: 975. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13060975

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