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Article

Changes in Cell-Mediated Immunity (IFN-γ and Granzyme B) Following Influenza Vaccination

1
Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya 663-8501, Hyogo, Japan
2
Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya 663-8501, Hyogo, Japan
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Department of Legal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya 663-8501, Hyogo, Japan
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Department of Public Health Nursing, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu 514-0001, Mie, Japan
5
Department of Microbiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya 663-8501, Hyogo, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marios Koutsakos and Sophie Valkenburg
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061137
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity to Influenza Viruses)
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is considered a key moderator of cell-mediated immunity. However, little is known about its association with granzyme B, which plays an important role in the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In the present study, we collected blood samples from 32 healthy adults before and after vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine in 2017/18 to measure the levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B, which play roles in cell-mediated immunity, and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody, which plays a role in humoral immunity. The levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B were significantly correlated both before and after vaccination. Furthermore, the post-vaccine fold increases in the IFN-γ and granzyme B levels were significantly correlated. The levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B decreased five months after vaccination in more than half of the subjects who exhibited an increase in IFN-γ and granzyme B at two weeks post-vaccination. This is the first study to investigate the correlation between IFN-γ and granzyme B levels following influenza vaccination. Our study suggests that both IFN-γ and granzyme B can be used as markers of cell-mediated immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell-mediated immunity; granzyme B; influenza; IFN-γ; vaccine cell-mediated immunity; granzyme B; influenza; IFN-γ; vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otani, N.; Nakajima, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Ichiki, K.; Ueda, T.; Takesue, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tanimura, S.; Shima, M.; Okuno, T. Changes in Cell-Mediated Immunity (IFN-γ and Granzyme B) Following Influenza Vaccination. Viruses 2021, 13, 1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061137

AMA Style

Otani N, Nakajima K, Ishikawa K, Ichiki K, Ueda T, Takesue Y, Yamamoto T, Tanimura S, Shima M, Okuno T. Changes in Cell-Mediated Immunity (IFN-γ and Granzyme B) Following Influenza Vaccination. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061137

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otani, Naruhito, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Kaori Ishikawa, Kaoru Ichiki, Takashi Ueda, Yoshio Takesue, Takuma Yamamoto, Susumu Tanimura, Masayuki Shima, and Toshiomi Okuno. 2021. "Changes in Cell-Mediated Immunity (IFN-γ and Granzyme B) Following Influenza Vaccination" Viruses 13, no. 6: 1137. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061137

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