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Review

Airborne Transmission of Avian Origin H9N2 Influenza A Viruses in Mammals

Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kateri Bertran, Martí Cortey and Miria F. Criado
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101919
Received: 23 July 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 20 September 2021 / Published: 24 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Shedding and Transmission in Zoonotic Diseases)
Influenza A viruses (IAV) are widespread viruses affecting avian and mammalian species worldwide. IAVs from avian species can be transmitted to mammals including humans and, thus, they are of inherent pandemic concern. Most of the efforts to understand the pathogenicity and transmission of avian origin IAVs have been focused on H5 and H7 subtypes due to their highly pathogenic phenotype in poultry. However, IAV of the H9 subtype, which circulate endemically in poultry flocks in some regions of the world, have also been associated with cases of zoonotic infections. In this review, we discuss the mammalian transmission of H9N2 and the molecular factors that are thought relevant for this spillover, focusing on the HA segment. Additionally, we discuss factors that have been associated with the ability of these viruses to transmit through the respiratory route in mammalian species. The summarized information shows that minimal amino acid changes in the HA and/or the combination of H9N2 surface genes with internal genes of human influenza viruses are enough for the generation of H9N2 viruses with the ability to transmit via aerosol. View Full-Text
Keywords: H9N2; influenza; aerosol; interspecies; mammals; zoonotic; pandemic H9N2; influenza; aerosol; interspecies; mammals; zoonotic; pandemic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cáceres, C.J.; Rajao, D.S.; Perez, D.R. Airborne Transmission of Avian Origin H9N2 Influenza A Viruses in Mammals. Viruses 2021, 13, 1919. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101919

AMA Style

Cáceres CJ, Rajao DS, Perez DR. Airborne Transmission of Avian Origin H9N2 Influenza A Viruses in Mammals. Viruses. 2021; 13(10):1919. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101919

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cáceres, C. Joaquín, Daniela S. Rajao, and Daniel R. Perez. 2021. "Airborne Transmission of Avian Origin H9N2 Influenza A Viruses in Mammals" Viruses 13, no. 10: 1919. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101919

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