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Identification of an Intermediate Step in Foamy Virus Fusion

Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Viruses as Ideal Tools to Dissect the Mechanisms Involved in Cross-Protection

IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (IRTA-CReSA), Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Pretoria 0110, South Africa
Departament de Sanitat i d’Anatomia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), 28130 Madrid, Spain
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autònoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
GALVmed, Doherty Building, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik Edinburgh EH26 0PZ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuel Borca
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1474;
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV))
African swine fever (ASF) has become the major threat for the global swine industry. Furthermore, the epidemiological situation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in some endemic regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is worse than ever, with multiple virus strains and genotypes currently circulating in a given area. Despite the recent advances on ASF vaccine development, there are no commercial vaccines yet, and most of the promising vaccine prototypes available today have been specifically designed to fight the genotype II strains currently circulating in Europe, Asia, and Oceania. Previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated the ability of BA71∆CD2, a recombinant LAV lacking CD2v, to confer protection against homologous (BA71) and heterologous genotype I (E75) and genotype II (Georgia2007/01) ASFV strains, both belonging to same clade (clade C). Here, we extend these results using BA71∆CD2 as a tool trying to understand ASFV cross-protection, using phylogenetically distant ASFV strains. We first observed that five out of six (83.3%) of the pigs immunized once with 106 PFU of BA71∆CD2 survived the tick-bite challenge using Ornithodoros sp. soft ticks naturally infected with RSA/11/2017 strain (genotype XIX, clade D). Second, only two out of six (33.3%) survived the challenge with Ken06.Bus (genotype IX, clade A), which is phylogenetically more distant to BA71∆CD2 than the RSA/11/2017 strain. On the other hand, homologous prime-boosting with BA71∆CD2 only improved the survival rate to 50% after Ken06.Bus challenge, all suffering mild ASF-compatible clinical signs, while 100% of the pigs immunized with BA71∆CD2 and boosted with the parental BA71 virulent strain survived the lethal challenge with Ken06.Bus, without almost no clinical signs of the disease. Our results confirm that cross-protection is a multifactorial phenomenon that not only depends on sequence similarity. We believe that understanding this complex phenomenon will be useful for designing future vaccines for ASF-endemic areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: African swine fever virus; live attenuate vaccine; cross-protection African swine fever virus; live attenuate vaccine; cross-protection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lopez, E.; van Heerden, J.; Bosch-Camós, L.; Accensi, F.; Navas, M.J.; López-Monteagudo, P.; Argilaguet, J.; Gallardo, C.; Pina-Pedrero, S.; Salas, M.L.; Salt, J.; Rodriguez, F. Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Viruses as Ideal Tools to Dissect the Mechanisms Involved in Cross-Protection. Viruses 2020, 12, 1474.

AMA Style

Lopez E, van Heerden J, Bosch-Camós L, Accensi F, Navas MJ, López-Monteagudo P, Argilaguet J, Gallardo C, Pina-Pedrero S, Salas ML, Salt J, Rodriguez F. Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Viruses as Ideal Tools to Dissect the Mechanisms Involved in Cross-Protection. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1474.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lopez, Elisabeth, Juanita van Heerden, Laia Bosch-Camós, Francesc Accensi, Maria J. Navas, Paula López-Monteagudo, Jordi Argilaguet, Carmina Gallardo, Sonia Pina-Pedrero, Maria L. Salas, Jeremy Salt, and Fernando Rodriguez. 2020. "Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Viruses as Ideal Tools to Dissect the Mechanisms Involved in Cross-Protection" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1474.

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