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Forests 2018, 9(8), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080478

Effects of Leaf Age and Exogenous Hormones on Callus Initiation, Rooting Formation, Bud Germination, and Plantlet Formation in Chinese Fir Leaf Cuttings

1
Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350108, China
2
Forestry College, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
3
State Forestry Administration Engineering Research Center of Chinese Fir, Fuzhou 350002, China
4
Zhejiang Lishui High School, Lishui 323000, China
5
Forest and Climate Change Division, CSIR-Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, KNUST, Kumasi P.O. Box UP 63, Ghana
6
College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
7
College of Arts College of Landscape Architecture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
8
Forest Park Engineering Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Fuzhou 350002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
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Abstract

To guide the cultivation of superior Chinese fir plantlets, we designed an L16(4)4 orthogonal experiment to determine how leaf age and exogenous hormones influence key growth processes in leaf cuttings. Hormone concentration and treatment duration significantly affected leaf cuttings in all three age categories; 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and treatment time exerted the strongest effects on callus initiation rates. Additionally, NAA had the largest effect on the rooting rate across all cuttings, and all three hormones significantly influenced the bud germination rate. Based on our experimental results, expected optimal treatments for callus initiation were 10 mg∙L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 10 min, 30 mg∙L−1 NAA for 15 min, and 10 mg∙L−1 NAA plus 30 mg∙L−1 IBA for 10 min. For the rooting rate, the expected optimal treatment was 50 mg∙L−1 NAA and 40 mg∙L−1 IBA for 5–20 min. Finally, for bud germination, optimal treatments were 20 min of immersion in water, 30 mg∙L−1 6-BA plus 50 mg∙L−1 NAA for 15 min, and 30 mg∙L−1 6-BA for 5 min. Plantlet formation only occurred in the <one-year-old leaves, and at very low rates (maximum 5.8%); this outcome is likely attributable to the mother plant’s relatively old age (five years). Plantlet formation from cuttings is dependent on ensuring the rooting rate after callus initiation. Therefore, to promote rooting rates and bud germination, we recommend leaving more xylem at the base of leaf cuttings. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chinese fir; leaf cuttings; callus initiation; rooting formation; bud germination; plantlet formation; exogenous hormones; leaf ages Chinese fir; leaf cuttings; callus initiation; rooting formation; bud germination; plantlet formation; exogenous hormones; leaf ages
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhou, L.; Li, S.; Huang, P.; Lin, S.; Addo-Danso, S.D.; Ma, Z.; Ding, G. Effects of Leaf Age and Exogenous Hormones on Callus Initiation, Rooting Formation, Bud Germination, and Plantlet Formation in Chinese Fir Leaf Cuttings. Forests 2018, 9, 478.

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