Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Development Strategies in Indochina: Collaborative Effort to Establish Regional Policies
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Establishment of a Collaboration Platform and Development of National Bioenergy Development Plans (NBDP)
- A great amount of heterogeneity existed among countries, in terms of the current status of bioenergy development, relevant policies, and regulations, as well as technological development and infrastructure.
- Energy consumption profiles differed considerably between rural and urban populations.
- There was a general lack of policy enforcement and consequently it led to illegal logging.
- The advantage of regional collaboration on various levels (research institutions, policy making authorities, NGO’s etc.) was keenly recognized.
- Jointly developing international markets (with focus on South Korea and Japan due to existing strong trade relationships in biomass commodities).
2.2. Analysis of NBDPs
2.3. Post-Workshop Questionnaire
3.1. Analysis of NBDPs
3.2. Results of Co-Therm Analysis
3.3. Summary of the Post-Workshop Survey
- Research (University or research institute) (42.3%)
- Governmental institution (Ministries, policy-making institution, chambers) (26.9%)
- Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) (11.5%)
- Private companies (Consulting, biomass or bioenergy business) (19.3%)
3.4. Trends in Biomass Resources and Commodities over the Next 25 Years
3.5. Responsible Institutions for Bioenergy Policy
3.6. Perceived Impacts of ACMECS Bioenergy Network
3.7. Preconditions to Successful Adoption of National Bioenergy Development Plans
3.8. Most Significant Financing Mechanisms
3.9. Risk Categories Effecting Successful Development of the Bioeconomy
4.1. Regional Heterogeneity
4.2. Perceived Versus System-Immanent Risks
4.3. Limitations of This Study
5. Conclusions and Policy Implications
- Baseline assessment and organization (Environmental, political and market information; consolidation of national committees; participatory approaches in rural areas).
- Policy development and promotion (Development of national harmonized bioenergy policies; promotion of investment and financing strategies; standardization of commodities; development of domestic and international markets; political lobbying and improved collaboration among involved deciding institutions, such as ministries).
- Implementation and development (Development of renewable energy systems at local scales; best management practices and guidelines; integration of policies into a regional strategy across country borders; policy enforcement strategies, development of a regional supply chain).
- Evaluation and monitoring (Development of monitoring systems with feedback cycles; impact assessment; assessment of links to international carbon markets and emission reduction schemes; financial support by international schemes, e.g., REDD+).
Conflicts of Interest
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|HDI 1||Land Area||Bioenergy 4||Bioenergy Commodities Production 5|
|Total 2||Forest 3||Agriculture 2|
|107 m−2||107 m−2||%||107 m−2||%||% of Total Renewable Energy Production||Fuelwood [106 m−3]||Charcoal [103 t]||Woodchips [103 m−3]||Pellets [103 t]|
|Cambodia||0.555||17,652||9457||54||5455||31||99.89||7.78||37.06||no data||no data|
|Laos||0.575||23,080||18,761||81||2369||10||no data||5.89||23.34||no data||no data|
|Myanmar||0.536||65,308||29,041||44||12,645||19||96.70||38.29||174.79||no data||no data|
|Item||Description of Contents|
|Introduction||Concise description of the purpose of the document, development of the ACMECS bioenergy network, and existing transnational frameworks.|
|Basic information||Country-specific information on the national energy supply and demand, including trade, energy portfolio, and potential sources of energy in total numbers and specifically for biomass. Included is a listing of governmental bodies (ministries, agencies) that are involved in energy issues. Two sub-sections on “National energy profile” and “National bioenergy profile” are included.|
|SWOT Analysis||This includes a classical SWOT analysis on further bioenergy development in each country. Topics covered are of social nature (e.g., policy development, implementation, acceptance, socioeconomic consequences, market development, trade), environmental (e.g., sustainability in biomass production, soil conservation, biodiversity, land use change), and technical issues (e.g., technology transfer and development). Key strategic issues (<10) are listed with a brief description, with the aim to address findings of the SWOT analysis.|
|Strategic plan for biomass energy development||The strategic plan briefly elaborates on actual proposed activities, including indicators, with the aim to enable efficient controlling mechanisms. A more abstract vision is described and subsequently specified in detail by defining a goal and the key success indicators (KSI). KSI’s are linked to actual activities and critical success factors, and key performance indicators are defined accordingly.|
|Links to national energy policies||Here, the nexus between the NBDP with existing (renewable or bio-) energy regulations and frameworks is described. Where appropriate, potential regulations that can be included/amended are listed.|
|Follow-up and evaluation process||This section identifies potential evaluation approaches and briefly elaborates on reporting and documentation requirements.|
|Governmental incentives taxation, subsidies||1||1||1||1||1|
|Support in planning of renewable energy systems||1||1||1||1||1|
|Political commitment to bioenergy||1||1||1||1||1|
|Access to capital/investments||2||1||1||1||1|
|Data on biomass market supply||1||1||2||1||1|
|Government support for community involvement||2||1||2||1||1|
|Education and capacity building||1||2||1||3||1|
|Collaboration among ACMECS countries||1||2||1||3||1|
|Data on biomass production constraints||2||3||2||1||1|
|Supporting data on land use||2||3||1||1||3|
|Biomass inventory data||2||3||2||2||1|
|Biomass availability on spatial scales||2||3||2||3||1|
|Collaboration among national institutions||2||3||2||3||1|
|Public acceptance for a bioenergy network||2||3||2||3||2|
|Theoretical biomass potentials in spatial scales||2||3||2||3||2|
|Spatially explicit soil data||2||3||2||3||3|
|International large-scale investors||1||2||2||2||2|
|Small-scale and microcredit models||2||2||2||2||3|
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Bruckman, V.J.; Haruthaithanasan, M.; Miller, R.O.; Terada, T.; Brenner, A.-K.; Kraxner, F.; Flaspohler, D. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Development Strategies in Indochina: Collaborative Effort to Establish Regional Policies. Forests 2018, 9, 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040223
Bruckman VJ, Haruthaithanasan M, Miller RO, Terada T, Brenner A-K, Kraxner F, Flaspohler D. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Development Strategies in Indochina: Collaborative Effort to Establish Regional Policies. Forests. 2018; 9(4):223. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040223Chicago/Turabian Style
Bruckman, Viktor J., Maliwan Haruthaithanasan, Raymond O. Miller, Toru Terada, Anna-Katharina Brenner, Florian Kraxner, and David Flaspohler. 2018. "Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Development Strategies in Indochina: Collaborative Effort to Establish Regional Policies" Forests 9, no. 4: 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040223