Next Article in Journal
Temperate and Tropical Forest Canopies are Already Functioning beyond Their Thermal Thresholds for Photosynthesis
Next Article in Special Issue
Moderate Disturbance Has Similar Effects on Production Regardless of Site Quality and Composition
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing the Impact of Forest Change and Climate Variability on Dry Season Runoff by an Improved Single Watershed Approach: A Comparative Study in Two Large Watersheds, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Variability after 15 Years of Vegetation Recovery in Natural Secondary Forest with Timber Harvesting at Different Intensities in Southeastern China: Community Diversity and Stability
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2018, 9(1), 39;

Detecting Shoot Beetle Damage on Yunnan Pine Using Landsat Time-Series Data

Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disturbance, Succession, and Development of Forests)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3950 KB, uploaded 22 January 2018]   |  


Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor have caused serious shoot damage in Yunnan pine forests in the Yunnan Province of China. However, very few remote sensing studies have estimated the shoot damage ratio (SDR). Thus, we used multi-date Landsat satellite imagery to quantify SDRs and assess the possibility of using spectral indices to determine the beetle outbreak time and spread direction. A new threshold-based classification method was proposed to identify damage levels (i.e., healthy, slightly to moderately infested, and severely infested forests) using time series of moisture stress index (MSI). Permanent plots and temporal field inspection data were both used as references for training and evaluation. Results show that a single threshold value can produce a total classification accuracy of 86.38% (Kappa = 0.80). Furthermore, time series maps detailing damage level were reconstructed from 2004 to 2016. The shoot beetle outbreak year was estimated to be 2013. Another interesting finding is the movement path of the geometric center of severe damage, which is highly consistent with the wind direction. We conclude that the time series of shoot damage level maps can be produced by using continuous MSI images. This method is very useful to foresters for determining the outbreak time and spread direction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Landsat; Tomicus yunnanensis; Tomicus minor; shoot damage ratio; classification; multi-date methods Landsat; Tomicus yunnanensis; Tomicus minor; shoot damage ratio; classification; multi-date methods

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, L.; Huang, J.; Zong, S.; Huang, H.; Luo, Y. Detecting Shoot Beetle Damage on Yunnan Pine Using Landsat Time-Series Data. Forests 2018, 9, 39.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top