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Open AccessArticle

Vertical Ozone Gradients above Forests. Comparison of Different Calculation Options with Direct Ozone Measurements above a Mature Forest and Consequences for Ozone Risk Assessment

Department of Mathematics and Physics, Catholic University of Brescia, via Musei 41, I-25121, Brescia, Italy
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Forests 2017, 8(9), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8090337
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
The estimation of the ozone (O3) stomatal dose absorbed by a forest is a crucial step for O3 risk assessment. For this purpose, data on O3 concentrations at the forest top-canopy are needed. However, O3 is barely measured at that height, while more often it is measured at a lower height above a different surface, typically a grassland near to the forest edge. The DO3SE model for O3 stomatal flux calculation estimates the top-canopy O3 concentration in near neutral stability conditions. However, near-neutrality is quite rare in the field, particularly in southern Europe. In this work, we present a modification of the DO3SE gradient calculation scheme to include the atmospheric stability. The performance of the new calculation scheme was tested against the direct measurements above a mature forest. Different gradient estimation options were also tested and evaluated. These options include simplified gradient calculation schemes and the techniques of the tabulated gradients described in the UN/ECE Mapping Manual for O3 risk assessment. The results highlight that the inclusion of the atmospheric stability in the DO3SE model greatly improves the accuracy of the stomatal dose estimation. However, the simpler technique of the tabulated gradients had the best performance on a whole-season time frame. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone stomatal dose; mature mixed oak–hornbeam forest; ozone vertical gradient; atmospheric stability; MOST; Mapping Manual UN/ECE; Bosco Fontana ozone stomatal dose; mature mixed oak–hornbeam forest; ozone vertical gradient; atmospheric stability; MOST; Mapping Manual UN/ECE; Bosco Fontana
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Gerosa, G.; Marzuoli, R.; Monteleone, B.; Chiesa, M.; Finco, A. Vertical Ozone Gradients above Forests. Comparison of Different Calculation Options with Direct Ozone Measurements above a Mature Forest and Consequences for Ozone Risk Assessment. Forests 2017, 8, 337.

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