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Unsustainability Risk Causality in a Private Industrial Forest: An Institutional Analysis of Factors Affecting Stand Ecosystem Services in Kochi Prefecture, Japan

School of Economics & Management, Kochi University of Technology, 2-22 Eikokuji, Kochi 780-8515, Japan
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Academic Editor: Damian C. Adams
Forests 2017, 8(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8040126
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Much research in recent years has analyzed the ecosystem service aspect of forests, while highlighting the need for sustainable forests. Forest management mechanisms at an inter-institutional level in Japan have been identified to hinder the implementation of forest management that is focused on the equal production of ecosystem services. This study presents an institutional analysis of unsustainability risk causality in a private industrial forest in Kochi Prefecture, Japan, from an ecosystem perspective incorporating common ecosystem service hazards that affect the sustainability functions of forests. This was performed with the aim to offer a basis for a less complicated analysis of ecosystem service hazards in industrial forests and to provide causal clarity at different institution levels. It was found that due to Japan’s systematic top-down forest management approach with the law at the top, vertical relationships cause direct and indirect negative horizontal relationships at each institutional level. To mitigate vertical and horizontal effects, institutional adaptions must be performed to address a combination of satisfier and hygiene factors. Under current conditions of non-enforceable forest policy, objectives and decisions regarding policy and management instruments at the national level must be integrated. This requires effective and adaptive multi-level institutional governance. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem services; sustainability; private forest owner; SFM; Japan; Kochi Prefecture; institutional analysis; small scale forestry ecosystem services; sustainability; private forest owner; SFM; Japan; Kochi Prefecture; institutional analysis; small scale forestry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gain, D.; Watanabe, T. Unsustainability Risk Causality in a Private Industrial Forest: An Institutional Analysis of Factors Affecting Stand Ecosystem Services in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Forests 2017, 8, 126. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8040126

AMA Style

Gain D, Watanabe T. Unsustainability Risk Causality in a Private Industrial Forest: An Institutional Analysis of Factors Affecting Stand Ecosystem Services in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Forests. 2017; 8(4):126. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8040126

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gain, Dennis, and Tsunemi Watanabe. 2017. "Unsustainability Risk Causality in a Private Industrial Forest: An Institutional Analysis of Factors Affecting Stand Ecosystem Services in Kochi Prefecture, Japan" Forests 8, no. 4: 126. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8040126

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