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Forests 2016, 7(3), 55;

Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

Center for Tropical Environmental Sustainability Science, College of Marine and Environmental Science, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland, 4870, Australia
Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
Academic Editors: Wil de Jong, Pia Katila, Glenn Galloway and Pablo Pacheco
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 27 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Incentives and Constraints of Community and Smallholder Forestry)
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The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management. View Full-Text
Keywords: reforestation; forest regeneration; forest transition; smallholder; tropical forest; deforestation; community forest management; plantation reforestation; forest regeneration; forest transition; smallholder; tropical forest; deforestation; community forest management; plantation

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Sloan, S. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change. Forests 2016, 7, 55.

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