- freely available
Forests 2016, 7(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/f7010024
2. Synergy between Adaptation and Mitigation in Forestry Activities: Meaning and Rationale
3.1. Choice of Guidelines
3.3. Analytical Framework: Principles and Criteria
|The health of forests ecosystems should be maintained or enhanced||[4,9,14,15,16]|
|The adaptive capacity of forest-dependent communities should be ensured||[14,17,18]|
|Carbon and adaptation benefits should be monitored and verified||[19,20]|
|Initiatives should demonstrate the need to plan and expect adaptation outcomes|||
Principle 1: The Health Condition of Forest Ecosystems Should Be Maintained or Enhanced
Principle 2: The Adaptive Capacity of Forest-Dependent Communities Should Be Ensured
Principle 3: Carbon and Adaptation Benefits Are Both Monitored and Verified
Principle 4: Initiatives Should Demonstrate the Need to Plan and Expect Adaptation Outcomes
4.1. Guiding Forest Carbon Initiatives to Deliver Adaptation Outcomes
4.1.1. The Health Condition of Forests Ecosystems Should Be Maintained or Enhanced
4.1.2. The Adaptive Capacity of Communities Should Be Ensured
4.1.3. Carbon and Adaptation Benefits are Both Monitored and Verified
4.1.4. Demonstrating the Need to Plan and Expect Adaptation Outcomes
4.2. Operationalizing the Criteria for Planning Synergy Outcomes: Case of the Envira Amazonia Project, Acre, Brazil
|Standards/Mechanism/Fund||Criteria to Guarantee Healthy Forest Ecosystems|
|The Exposure of Forest and Other Systems to Climate Change Should Be Assessed||The Sensitivity of Forest and Other Systems to Climate Change Should Be Assessed||Adaptation Strategies for Forests and Other Related Systems Are Designed||The Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects and Programs Should Be Done||Strategies to Reduce Impacts or Enhance Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Should Be Designed|
|CCBA||+ **||+ **||+ **||+||+|
|Standards/Mechanism/Fund||Criteria for Ensuring the Adaptive Capacity of Communities|
|The livelihood Resources/Assets in Project and Program Areas Should Be Assessed||The Impacts of Projects and Programs on Livelihood Resources Should Be Assessed||Strategies to Enhance the Livelihood Resources of Communities Should Be Designed|
|Standards/Mechanisms/Fund||Verification and Monitoring of Synergy Outcomes|
|Verification and Monitoring of Carbon Values and Benefits||Verification and Monitoring of Adaptation Benefits|
|SOCIAL CARBON||0 **||+|
|Criteria||Case of Envira Project||Explanation|
|The exposure and sensitivity of forest and other systems to climate change are assessed||Yes||Project proponents studied the regional climate change and climate variability scenarios for Acre, Brazil. Risks related to intense rainfall events, losses in natural systems including rainforest and biodiversity, favorable conditions for the spread of forest fires were identified. Intense rainfall could lead to soil erosion and nutrient depletion, which will in turn increase the conversion of primary forest to agriculture land by communities.|
|Adaptation strategies for forests and other systems should be designed||Yes||Project proponents have designed adaptation strategies for forest biodiversity.|
|The environmental impact assessment of projects and programs should be done||Yes||Environmental and biodiversity impact assessment was carried out in the project area including the assessment of vulnerable trees species and endemic bird species.|
|Strategies to reduce impacts or enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services should be designed||Yes||Project proponents provided a description of measures to maintain and enhance forest biodiversity.|
|The livelihood resources/assets in project areas should be assessed||Yes||The social conditions of communities were assessed, taking into consideration all the different social groups.|
|The impacts of projects and programs on livelihood resources should be assessed||Yes||The project proponents carried out social impact assessment studies in the project areas.|
|Strategies to enhance the livelihood resources of communities should be designed||Yes||Related programs have been designed to make contributions to community wellbeing, which equally targets marginalized and vulnerable groups e.g., livelihood diversification, agriculture and livestock intensification, increase in the delivery of agriculture extension services.|
|Carbon values and benefits should be monitored and verified||Yes||Project proponents have developed a monitoring plan to monitor deforestation and change in carbon stocks in project areas.|
|Adaptation benefits should be monitored and verified||Yes||Project proponents also developed a livelihood and biodiversity monitoring plan to demonstrate net positive social and biodiversity benefits. In addition, project proponents have developed indicators to monitor and demonstrate that project activities leads to net positive adaptation benefits.|
|The population or social group vulnerable to climate change and suitable to carry out carbon sequestration activities should overlap||Yes||Carbon emission reduction objectives will be achieved by changing the forest and land use patterns of the population in the project area, which depends on the socioeconomic condition in the project area. On the other hand, the same population are vulnerable e.g., food insecurity and decreasing income levels.|
|The location vulnerable to climate change and suitable for mitigation activities should overlap||Yes||Intense rainfall events, losses in natural systems including rainforest and biodiversity, favorable conditions for the spread of forest fires, soil erosion where identified as climatic threats, thus a need for adaptation planning. On the other hand, the rich tropical forest in the project area has potentials to avoid tons of carbon emission.|
|Mitigation activities should increase the resilience of production systems||Yes||Keeping trees standing for carbon will sustain the provision of ecosystem services e.g., reduce soil erosion and nutrient depletion resulting from intense rainfall.|
|Mitigation activities should increase the adaptive capacity of social systems||Yes||Project activities e.g., training from agriculture extension services will reduce pressure on forest resources and as well increase agriculture and livestock intensification, and livelihood diversification. For example, communities will be trained on the extraction and processing of medicinal plants, improving pasture management, alternative use of fire for land preparation, etc.|
5.1. Opportunities for Planning and Promoting M + A Synergy Outcomes in Existing Guidelines for Building Forest Carbon
5.2. Incentivizing the Planning and Promotion of Adaptation Outcomes in Forest Carbon Initiatives
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