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Review

Agroforestry to Achieve Global Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Targets: Are South Asian Countries Sufficiently Prepared?

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Water Technology and Management Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Maharashtra, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra, India
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Adaptation and Risk Analysis Division, Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy, Nagashetty Halli, R.M.V. 2nd Stage, Bengaluru 560094, Karnataka, India
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Cleaner Technology and Modeling Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra, India
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Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services Division, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), 2108-11 Kamiyamaguchi, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0115, Japan
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GIS Center, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006, Uttarakhand, India
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mi Sun Park and Himlal Baral
Forests 2021, 12(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030303
Received: 6 January 2021 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 6 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
Traditional agroforestry systems across South Asia have historically supported millions of smallholding farmers. Since, 2007 agroforestry has received attention in global climate discussions for its carbon sink potential. Agroforestry plays a defining role in offsetting greenhouse gases, providing sustainable livelihoods, localizing Sustainable Development Goals and achieving biodiversity targets. The review explores evidence of agroforestry systems for human well-being along with its climate adaptation and mitigation potential for South Asia. In particular, we explore key enabling and constraining conditions for mainstreaming agroforestry systems to use them to fulfill global climate mitigation targets. Nationally determined contributions submitted by South Asian countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change acknowledge agroforestry systems. In 2016, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’s Resolution on Agroforestry brought consensus on developing national agroforestry policies by all regional countries and became a strong enabling condition to ensure effectiveness of using agroforestry for climate targets. Lack of uniform methodologies for creation of databases to monitor tree and soil carbon stocks was found to be a key limitation for the purpose. Water scarcity, lack of interactive governance, rights of farmers and ownership issues along with insufficient financial support to rural farmers for agroforestry were other constraining conditions that should be appropriately addressed by the regional countries to develop their preparedness for achieving national climate ambitions. Our review indicates the need to shift from planning to the implementation phase following strong examples shared from India and Nepal, including carbon neutrality scenarios, incentives and sustainable local livelihood to enhance preparedness. View Full-Text
Keywords: agroforestry; South Asia; climate change; mitigation; adaptation; policy; REDD+; national determined contributions; climate neutrality agroforestry; South Asia; climate change; mitigation; adaptation; policy; REDD+; national determined contributions; climate neutrality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dhyani, S.; Murthy, I.K.; Kadaverugu, R.; Dasgupta, R.; Kumar, M.; Adesh Gadpayle, K. Agroforestry to Achieve Global Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Targets: Are South Asian Countries Sufficiently Prepared? Forests 2021, 12, 303. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030303

AMA Style

Dhyani S, Murthy IK, Kadaverugu R, Dasgupta R, Kumar M, Adesh Gadpayle K. Agroforestry to Achieve Global Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Targets: Are South Asian Countries Sufficiently Prepared? Forests. 2021; 12(3):303. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030303

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dhyani, Shalini, Indu K. Murthy, Rakesh Kadaverugu, Rajarshi Dasgupta, Manoj Kumar, and Kritika Adesh Gadpayle. 2021. "Agroforestry to Achieve Global Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Targets: Are South Asian Countries Sufficiently Prepared?" Forests 12, no. 3: 303. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030303

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