Next Article in Journal
Management of Multiple Ecosystem Services under Climate Change, Bioeconomy and Participation
Next Article in Special Issue
Ips sexdentatus Mass-Trapping: Mitigation of Its Negative Effects on Saproxylic Beetles Larger Than the Target
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Veneer Initial Moisture Content on the Performance of Polyethylene Film Reinforced Decorative Veneer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Infection and Spread of Root Rot Caused by Heterobasidion parviporum in Picea abies Stands after Thinning: Case Studies on Former Pasture and Meadow Lands
Communication

Potential Differences and Methods of Determining Gypsy Moth Female Flight Capabilities: Implications for the Establishment and Spread in Novel Habitats

1
Forest Sciences Centre, Department of Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
2
United States Department of Agriculture, Northern Research Station, Forest Service, 51 Mill Pond Road, Hamden, CT 06514, USA
3
Forest Sciences Centre, Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2021, 12(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010103
Received: 9 December 2020 / Revised: 9 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Pathology and Entomology)
The introduction of the Asian gypsy moth into novel environments continues with frequent interceptions in North America. There is a concern that these subspecies will pose a greater threat to the forests and urban environments of North America than the established gypsy moths (Lymantria dispardispar L.), due to their greater capacity for female flight. Asian gypsy moth populations vary in many key traits, including female flight capabilities. The potential impacts of female flight, in combination with the other key traits, on the ecology and spread of this insect are first discussed in this communication. This also provides the first review of most of the current literature on the variations in flight capability and flight distance of gypsy moth populations, as well as variation in other traits of concern and the potential methods of identification, with special attention paid to the Asian subspecies Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky and Lymantria dispar asiatica Vinkovskij. There are currently good tools for identifying the general origin of introduced gypsy moth populations, but these do not provide enough information to effectively manage introductions. Gypsy moth key traits differ among populations, even within each subspecies of the gypsy moth, so introduction of gypsy moths from other world areas into locations where the gypsy moth is already present could result in unwanted changes in gypsy moth biology. It also appears that the introduction of flight-capable females could enhance a population’s dispersal capability and require modifications to management protocols used for flightless females. Therefore, rapid tools to assess key traits in introduced populations are needed to adequately plan for, or deal with, new introductions into novel habitats. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asian gypsy moth; Lymantria dispar; invasive species; forest pests Asian gypsy moth; Lymantria dispar; invasive species; forest pests
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Srivastava, V.; Keena, M.A.; Maennicke, G.E.; Hamelin, R.C.; Griess, V.C. Potential Differences and Methods of Determining Gypsy Moth Female Flight Capabilities: Implications for the Establishment and Spread in Novel Habitats. Forests 2021, 12, 103. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010103

AMA Style

Srivastava V, Keena MA, Maennicke GE, Hamelin RC, Griess VC. Potential Differences and Methods of Determining Gypsy Moth Female Flight Capabilities: Implications for the Establishment and Spread in Novel Habitats. Forests. 2021; 12(1):103. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Srivastava, Vivek, Melody A. Keena, Galen E. Maennicke, Richard C. Hamelin, and Verena C. Griess. 2021. "Potential Differences and Methods of Determining Gypsy Moth Female Flight Capabilities: Implications for the Establishment and Spread in Novel Habitats" Forests 12, no. 1: 103. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12010103

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop