Acacia plants are globally important resources in the wood industry, but particularly in Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, we compared the physical and mechanical properties of polyploid Acacia (3x and 4x) clones with those of diploid (2x) clones grown in Vietnam. We randomly selected 29 trees aged 3.8 years from different taxa for investigation. BV10 and BV16 clones represented the diploid controls; X101 and X102 were the triploid clones; and AA-4x, AM-4x, and AH-4x represented neo-tetraploid families of Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, and their hybrid clones. The following metrics were measured in each plant: stem height levels, basic density, air-dry equilibrium moisture content, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), compression strength, and Young’s modulus. We found that the equilibrium moisture content significantly differed among clones, and basic density varied from pith-to-bark and in an axial direction. In addition, the basic density of AA-4x was significantly higher than that of the control clones. Furthermore, the MOR of AM-4x was considerably lower than the control clones, whereas the MOE of X101 was significantly higher than the control values. The compression strength of AM-4x was significantly lower than that of the control clones, but AH-4x had a significantly higher Young’s modulus. Our results suggest that polyploid Acacia hybrids have the potential to be alternative species for providing wood with improved properties to the forestry sector of Vietnam. Furthermore, the significant differences among the clones indicate that opportunities exist for selection and the improvement of wood quality via selective breeding for specific properties.
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