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Open AccessArticle

Estimation of Over- and Under-Bark Volume of Scots Pine Timber Produced by Harvesters

Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(6), 626;
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forestry Production Process Automation and Robotization)
Harvesters produce one third of timber in Czechia. The aim of this study was to analyze the over- and under-bark volume estimates of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) timber produced by a mid-performance harvester. The data were collected between March 2017 and June 2018. In total, 4661 stems cut into 29,834 logs were analyzed. For volume estimation, StanForD offers several price categories using various algorithms. Three of these price categories are relevant for Czech forestry—M3s, M3toDE, and M3miDE. The M3s price category is based on the estimation of partial volumes of 10 cm long sections, which are summed. Therefore, this price category represents the volume estimation closest to the true volume. By comparison, the M3toDE and M3miDE price categories use the same algorithm for volume estimation, which is based on the Huber formula using a midspan diameter rounded down to the nearest whole centimeter. The M3toDE price category underestimated the over-bark volume by 6.48% compared to the reference price category M3s. The mean log volume estimated through the M3s price category was significantly higher than the M3toDE volume both in individual grades and without grading. We found significant differences between under-bark volume estimates by the diameter band bark deduction method (DBM) and the parametric linear bark deduction method (PLM) used in harvester’s systems according to the Guidelines for Electronic Scaling of Timber for Harvesters in Czechia (GEH) for Scots pine butt logs with rough bark, and also for other logs with normal bark thickness. To obtain under-bark volume estimates of Scots pine timber that are comparable with the Guidelines for Timber Scaling in Czechia (GTS) using the parametric nonlinear bark deduction method (PNM), we recommend using the algorithm of the M3toDE price category, with double bark thickness determined by the diameter band bark deduction method. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; StanForD; stem file; log; double bark thickness Pinus sylvestris; StanForD; stem file; log; double bark thickness
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Sedmíková, M.; Löwe, R.; Jankovský, M.; Natov, P.; Linda, R.; Dvořák, J. Estimation of Over- and Under-Bark Volume of Scots Pine Timber Produced by Harvesters. Forests 2020, 11, 626.

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