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Open AccessArticle

Bark Stripping by Deer Was More Intensive on New Recruits than on Advanced Regenerants in a Subalpine Forest

Yamanashi Forest Research Institute, Forest Research Division, Saisyoji 2290-1, Fujikawa, Yamanashi 400-0502, Japan
Forests 2020, 11(5), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050490
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Research Highlights: To ensure sustainable forest regeneration, it is important to clarify whether new recruits or advanced regenerants are more likely to be stripped. Therefore, the effects of bark stripping on saplings in subalpine forests with abundant saplings should be analyzed by regeneration mode, but there have been no such studies until now. Background and Objectives: I investigated the effects of bark stripping by Cervus nippon on saplings in a subalpine coniferous forest in central Japan to (1) reveal differences in bark stripping between new recruits and advanced regenerants and (2) clarify the factors affecting survivorship. Materials and Methods: A 50 m × 140 m (0.7 ha) plot was set in the old-growth subalpine coniferous forest. All trees in the plot that were ≥2 m in height were tagged, identified to species, measured diameter at breast height and recorded bark stripping by deer. These trees and new recruits were counted and measured in 2005, 2007, 2012, and 2017. I compared saplings recruited in 2007, 2012, and 2017 (“new recruits”) with existing saplings of the same size (“advanced regenerants”). Results: The density of new recruits of Abies mariesii and Tsuga diversifolia increased, whereas that of Abies veitchii decreased. The proportion of stripped saplings was greater in new recruits than in advanced regenerants, significantly so in A. veitchii, which also had the highest maximum bark stripping ratio. Factors affecting the survivorships applied by the regression tree analysis were the maximum stripping ratio of stems for the two Abies species and the initial size for the T. diversifolia. Conclusions: Bark stripping by deer was more intensive on new recruits than on advanced regenerants in a subalpine forest, and regeneration in canopy gaps might fail because of intensive bark stripping in areas overabundant in deer. View Full-Text
Keywords: debarking; Mt. Fuji; mortality; regeneration; sika deer debarking; Mt. Fuji; mortality; regeneration; sika deer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nagaike, T. Bark Stripping by Deer Was More Intensive on New Recruits than on Advanced Regenerants in a Subalpine Forest. Forests 2020, 11, 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050490

AMA Style

Nagaike T. Bark Stripping by Deer Was More Intensive on New Recruits than on Advanced Regenerants in a Subalpine Forest. Forests. 2020; 11(5):490. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nagaike, Takuo. 2020. "Bark Stripping by Deer Was More Intensive on New Recruits than on Advanced Regenerants in a Subalpine Forest" Forests 11, no. 5: 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050490

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