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Article

Phytophthora austrocedri in Argentina and Co-Inhabiting Phytophthoras: Roles of Anthropogenic and Abiotic Factors in Species Distribution and Diversity

1
Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico (CIEFAP)—Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia (UNPSJB), Ruta 259 Km 16,24, 9200 Esquel, Argentina
2
Centro de Estudios Ambientales Integrados, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (UNPSJB)—Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ruta 259 Km 16,4, 9200 Esquel, Argentina
3
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), 9200 Esquel, Argentina
4
Forest Research, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY, UK
5
Cell and Molecular Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK
6
Information and Computational Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK
7
Centro de Investigación Esquel de Montaña y Estepa Patagónica (CONICET-UNPSJB)—Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Cs. de la Salud, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia (UNPSJB), Ruta 259 Km 16,4, 9200 Esquel, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to the manuscript.
The author now is at: The Woodland Trust, Edinburgh EH2 4PG, UK.
Forests 2020, 11(11), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111223
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 15 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
This work reports the first survey of Phytophthora diversity in the forests soils of Andean Patagonia. It also discusses the role of anthropogenic impact on Phytophthora distribution inferred from the findings on Phytophthora diversity and on the distribution of Phytophthora austrocedri-diseased forests. Invasive pathogen species threatening ecosystems and human activities contribute to their entry and spread. Information on pathogens already established, and early detection of potential invasive ones, are crucial to disease management and prevention. Phytophthora austrocedri causes the most damaging forest disease in Patagonia, affecting the endemic species Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Sern. and Bizzarri. However, the relationship between anthropogenic impacts and the disease distribution has not been analyzed enough. The aims of this work were: to evaluate Phytophthora diversity in soils of Andean Patagonia using a metabarcoding method, and analyze this information in relation to soil type and land use; to assess the distribution of Austrocedrus disease over time in relation to anthropogenic and abiotic gradients in an area of interest; and to discuss the role of human activities in Phytophthora spread. High throughput Illumina sequencing was used to detect Phytophthora DNA in soil samples. The distribution of Austrocedrus disease over time was assessed by satellite imagery interpretation. Twenty-three Phytophthora species, 12 of which were new records for Argentina, were detected. The most abundant species was P. austrocedri, followed by P. × cambivora, P. ramorum and P. kernoviae. The most frequent was P. × cambivora, followed by P. austrocedri and P. ramorum. Phytophthora richness and abundance, and Austrocedrus disease distribution, were influenced by land use, anthropogenic impact and soil drainage. Results showed several Phytophthoras, including well-known pathogenic species. The threat they could present to Patagonian ecosystems and their relations to human activities are discussed. This study evidenced the need of management measures to control the spread of P. austrocedri and other invasive Phytophthora species in Patagonia. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest diseases; invasive species; metabarcoding; risk models forest diseases; invasive species; metabarcoding; risk models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vélez, M.L.; La Manna, L.; Tarabini, M.; Gomez, F.; Elliott, M.; Hedley, P.E.; Cock, P.; Greslebin, A. Phytophthora austrocedri in Argentina and Co-Inhabiting Phytophthoras: Roles of Anthropogenic and Abiotic Factors in Species Distribution and Diversity. Forests 2020, 11, 1223. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111223

AMA Style

Vélez ML, La Manna L, Tarabini M, Gomez F, Elliott M, Hedley PE, Cock P, Greslebin A. Phytophthora austrocedri in Argentina and Co-Inhabiting Phytophthoras: Roles of Anthropogenic and Abiotic Factors in Species Distribution and Diversity. Forests. 2020; 11(11):1223. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vélez, María Laura, Ludmila La Manna, Manuela Tarabini, Federico Gomez, Matt Elliott, Pete E. Hedley, Peter Cock, and Alina Greslebin. 2020. "Phytophthora austrocedri in Argentina and Co-Inhabiting Phytophthoras: Roles of Anthropogenic and Abiotic Factors in Species Distribution and Diversity" Forests 11, no. 11: 1223. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111223

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