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Structural and Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Mangrove Plant: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f. and Related Rubiaceae Species

1
Life Science and Technology School, Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048, China
2
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 570100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(11), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10111000
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f. (Rubiaceae) is an endangered mangrove species found in China, and its only known location is in Hainan Island. Previous studies conducted on S. hydrophyllaceae have mainly focused on its location, biological characteristics, and medical effects. However, to date, there has been no published report regarding the genetics or genome of this endangered mangrove species. In this study, we developed valuable chloroplast genome-related molecular resources of S. hydrophyllaceae by comparing with it related Rubiaceae species. The chloroplast genome of S. hydrophyllaceae was found to be a circular molecule with a total size of 155,132 bp, and it is observed to have a quadripartite structure. The whole chloroplast genome contains 132 genes, of which 88 and 36 are protein-coding and transfer RNA genes, respectively; it also contains four ribosomal RNA genes with an overall GC content of 37.60%. A total of 52 microsatellites were detected in the S. hydrophyllacea chloroplast genome, and microsatellite marker detection identified A/T mononucleotides as majority simple sequence repeats in all nine Rubiaceae chloroplast genomes. Comparative analyses of these nine chloroplast genomes revealed variable regions, including matK, rps16, and atpF. All nine species shared 13 RNA-editing sites distributed across eight coding genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete sequences of the chloroplast genomes revealed that the position of S. hydrophyllaceae is closer to the Coffeeae genus than to Cinchoneae, Naucleeae, Morindeae, and Rubieae in the Rubiaceae family. The genome information reported in this study could find further application in the evolution and population genetic studies, and it helps improve our understanding of the endangered mechanism and the development of conservation strategies of this endangered mangrove plant. View Full-Text
Keywords: endangered mangrove; Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea; Rubiaceae; Gentianales; chloroplast genome; phylogenetic analysis endangered mangrove; Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea; Rubiaceae; Gentianales; chloroplast genome; phylogenetic analysis
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Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.-W.; Yang, Y.; Li, X.-N. Structural and Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Mangrove Plant: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f. and Related Rubiaceae Species. Forests 2019, 10, 1000.

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