Next Article in Journal
Diversity in the Enteric Viruses Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India
Next Article in Special Issue
Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region
Open AccessArticle

Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

The Water Institute, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 135 Dauer Drive, CB #7431, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 880-894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9030880
Received: 14 February 2012 / Revised: 28 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; drinking water; water safety; Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) water quality; drinking water; water safety; Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Onda, K.; LoBuglio, J.; Bartram, J. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 880-894.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop