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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3399-3415;

A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

Departments of Preventive Medicine and Psychology, University of Southern California, California 90032, CA, USA
Clinical Psychology, Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, California 93105, CA, USA
School of Community and Global Health, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California 91711,CA, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Behavioral Addictions: Co-Occurrence and Specificity)
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Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena. View Full-Text
Keywords: addiction specificity; PACE model addiction specificity; PACE model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sussman, S.; Leventhal, A.; Bluthenthal, R.N.; Freimuth, M.; Forster, M.; Ames, S.L. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3399-3415.

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