Next Article in Journal
Susceptibility to Smoking among Adolescents and Its Implications for Mexico’s Tobacco Control Programs. Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003-2004 and 2006-2007
Next Article in Special Issue
Parents’ and Teachers’ Opinions about the School Food Policy in Belgian Flemish Nursery Schools
Previous Article in Journal
Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men
Previous Article in Special Issue
Adverse Effects of a Clinically Relevant Dose of Hydroxyurea Used for the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease on Male Fertility Endpoints
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(3), 1235-1253;

How the Mid-Victorians Worked, Ate and Died

School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, UK
Department of History & Law, Nottingham Trent University, UK
This paper is an extended re-working of three papers published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine [1-3]
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2009 / Accepted: 28 February 2009 / Published: 20 March 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health: Feature Papers)
Full-Text   |   PDF [138 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Analysis of the mid-Victorian period in the U.K. reveals that life expectancy at age 5 was as good or better than exists today, and the incidence of degenerative disease was 10% of ours. Their levels of physical activity and hence calorific intakes were approximately twice ours. They had relatively little access to alcohol and tobacco; and due to their correspondingly high intake of fruits, whole grains, oily fish and vegetables, they consumed levels of micro- and phytonutrients at approximately ten times the levels considered normal today. This paper relates the nutritional status of the mid-Victorians to their freedom from degenerative disease; and extrapolates recommendations for the cost-effective improvement of public health today. View Full-Text
Keywords: Public health; dietary shift; degenerative disease; Victorian Public health; dietary shift; degenerative disease; Victorian
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Clayton, P.; Rowbotham, J. How the Mid-Victorians Worked, Ate and Died. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 1235-1253.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top