Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Smoking and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Parallel Epidemics of the 21st Century
Previous Article in Journal
Overview of Dose Assessment Developments and the Health of Riverside Residents Close to the “Mayak” PA Facilities, Russia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Smoking Cessation Counselling for Pregnant and Postpartum Women among Midwives, Gynaecologists and Paediatricians in Germany
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 200-208;

Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2008 / Accepted: 6 January 2009 / Published: 9 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking and Tobacco Control)
Full-Text   |   PDF [224 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


The number of smokers in developing countries is expected to increase as markets in high income countries begin to decline and multinational tobacco companies shift their marketing efforts to lower income countries. We determined the prevalence and distribution of smoking in a cross-sectional study of 1,015 urban civil servants in Accra, Ghana (82.7% participation rate) in 2006. The results were compared to the findings from a previous study in 1976 of civil servants in Accra to estimate the changes in smoking patterns over a 30 year period. In our 2006 study, the smoking prevalence rate was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.8-8.9) and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.006-1.4) in men and women respectively. These figures were dramatically lower than the rates of 32% and 5.9% reported for men and women respectively in the previous study. Knowledge of the health risks associated with smoking may have contributed to the lower rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Smoking; Ghana; civil servants Smoking; Ghana; civil servants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Addo, J.; Smeeth, L.; Leon, D.A. Smoking Patterns in Ghanaian Civil Servants: Changes Over Three Decades. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6, 200-208.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top