‘COVID Is Coming, and I’m Bloody Scared’: How Adults with Co-Morbidities’ Threat Perceptions of COVID-19 Shape Their Vaccination Decisions
1.1. Literature Review and Background
1.2. The Western Australian Pandemic and Vaccination Policy Context
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Perceiving the Threat: Severity Perceptions of COVID-19
“I’m fully vaccinated and boosted at this stage, but I also suffer from asthma and have done for a long time. So, I knew that if I didn’t get vaccinated and I caught it, it would have killed me.”
“I would say that I’ve been pretty cautious about the virus… I know what it’s like to get sick and not fully recover, and then I also I don’t think my body is a as equipped to fight the virus as perhaps another person my age.”
“The research on long COVID isn’t clear, is it? I don’t think they’re in a position yet because there aren’t any longitudinal studies to be clear about long COVID. So I have no concerns for long COVID more than I do for any other infectious disease.”
3.2. Perceiving the Threat: Susceptibility Perceptions of COVID-19
“I think that I’ve got a higher chance of getting COVID than I do flu and pneumonia because I don’t really hang around a lot of people who are sick with the flu. But, COVID is another thing altogether.”
3.3. Responding to the Threat with Vaccination: Response Efficacy
“I did actually speak to my endocrinologist and say, ‘Look, you know, again that thing of knowing what immunity … autoimmune stuff is triggered by viruses. What is the chance that this is gonna trigger something?’ And she said, ‘Oh, it’s possible, but it’s that risk versus, you know, which risk is higher kind of thing’ … But, you know, I’m very vaccine positive so, you know, I’m willing to trust the experts on that.”
3.4. Responding to the Threat with Vaccination: Self-Efficacy
3.5. Vaccination Journeys: How Responses to Fear and Vaccine Beliefs Shape Decisions
- Polly—a quintessential vaccine acceptance story
- Molly—a quintessential vaccine refusal story
- Charlie—a story of external coercion shaping vaccine decisions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Vaccination Status and Intention||Pseudonym||Comorbidity (Self-Identified)||Gender||Age|
|Acceptor, Triple dosed||Anna||High blood pressure, obesity||F||24|
|Acceptor, Triple dosed||Redgum||MADD (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency—rare disease)||M||21|
|Acceptor, Triple dosed||Joan||Did not disclose specific comorbidity||Prefer not to say||34|
|Acceptor, Triple dosed||Jess||Autoimmune condition||F||22|
|Acceptor, Triple dosed||Dawn||Asthma||F||59|
|Acceptor, Triple dosed||Phoenix||Did not disclose specific comorbidity||F||45|
|Acceptor, Triple dosed||Polly||Type 2 Diabetes||F||55|
|Cautious acceptor, Triple dosed||Liz||Type 1 Diabetes||F||46|
|Cautious acceptor, Triple dosed||Boris||Asthma||M||33|
|Wait Awhile, Triple dosed||Gillian||Type 1 Diabetes||F||23|
|Coerced acceptor, One dose||Stewart||Obesity||M||60|
|Coerced acceptor, One dose, second dose booked||Charlie||Chronic neurological conditions||M||30|
|Refuser, No doses||Molly||Autoimmune disorder||F||49|
|Refuser, No doses||Sophie||Lupus and other conditions||F||43|
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© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Roberts, L.; Deml, M.J.; Attwell, K. ‘COVID Is Coming, and I’m Bloody Scared’: How Adults with Co-Morbidities’ Threat Perceptions of COVID-19 Shape Their Vaccination Decisions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 2953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042953
Roberts L, Deml MJ, Attwell K. ‘COVID Is Coming, and I’m Bloody Scared’: How Adults with Co-Morbidities’ Threat Perceptions of COVID-19 Shape Their Vaccination Decisions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(4):2953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042953Chicago/Turabian Style
Roberts, Leah, Michael J. Deml, and Katie Attwell. 2023. "‘COVID Is Coming, and I’m Bloody Scared’: How Adults with Co-Morbidities’ Threat Perceptions of COVID-19 Shape Their Vaccination Decisions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20, no. 4: 2953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042953