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Nutritional and Non-Nutritional Strategies in Bodybuilding: Impact on Kidney Function

1
Centre for Research in Psychology and Sports Science, De Havilland Campus, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9EU, UK
2
Centre for Health Services and Clinical Research, De Havilland Campus, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9EU, UK
3
Department of Physical Education Studies, Brandon University, Brandon, MB R7A 6A9, Canada
4
Renal Unit, Lister Hospital, East and North Herts Trust, Stevenage SG1 4AB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074288
Received: 17 February 2022 / Revised: 23 March 2022 / Accepted: 29 March 2022 / Published: 3 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2nd Edition of Physical Activity for Health)
Bodybuilders routinely engage in many dietary and other practices purported to be harmful to kidney health. The development of acute kidney injury, focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) and nephrocalcinosis may be particular risks. There is little evidence that high-protein diets and moderate creatine supplementation pose risks to individuals with normal kidney function though long-term high protein intake in those with underlying impairment of kidney function is inadvisable. The links between anabolic androgenic steroid use and FSGS are stronger, and there are undoubted dangers of nephrocalcinosis in those taking high doses of vitamins A, D and E. Dehydrating practices, including diuretic misuse, and NSAID use also carry potential risks. It is difficult to predict the effects of multiple practices carried out in concert. Investigations into subclinical kidney damage associated with these practices have rarely been undertaken. Future research is warranted to identify the clinical and subclinical harm associated with individual practices and combinations to enable appropriate and timely advice. View Full-Text
Keywords: bodybuilding; kidney function; nutritional supplements; androgenic steroids; hypervitaminosis bodybuilding; kidney function; nutritional supplements; androgenic steroids; hypervitaminosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tidmas, V.; Brazier, J.; Hawkins, J.; Forbes, S.C.; Bottoms, L.; Farrington, K. Nutritional and Non-Nutritional Strategies in Bodybuilding: Impact on Kidney Function. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 4288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074288

AMA Style

Tidmas V, Brazier J, Hawkins J, Forbes SC, Bottoms L, Farrington K. Nutritional and Non-Nutritional Strategies in Bodybuilding: Impact on Kidney Function. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(7):4288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074288

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tidmas, Victoria, Jon Brazier, Janine Hawkins, Scott C. Forbes, Lindsay Bottoms, and Ken Farrington. 2022. "Nutritional and Non-Nutritional Strategies in Bodybuilding: Impact on Kidney Function" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 7: 4288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074288

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