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Article

Use of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Different Populations in Europe in Relation to Access: Implications for Policy

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Centre for Health and Development, Staffordshire University, Leek Road, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DF, UK
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Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, P.O. Box 1026, 551 11 Jönköping, Sweden
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Mariana Arcaya’s Research Lab, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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Barcelona Lab for Urban Environmental Justice and Sustainability, Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
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IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), ISGlobal, Carrer del Dr. Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Medicine and Life Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002 Barcelona, Spain
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CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Environmental Science, Vytauto Didžiojo Universitetas, 44248 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Department of Public and Occupational Health, Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre (VUMC), 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Teodoro Georgiadis, Letizia Cremonini and Stefania Toselli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042226
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 26 January 2022 / Accepted: 5 February 2022 / Published: 16 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centered Approach in City Regeneration)
This cross-cultural study explores the relationship of natural outdoor environment (NOE) use with NOE access. Most urban planning recommendations suggest optimal accessibility to be 300 m–500 m straight distance to spaces with vegetation of at least 1 hectare. Exploring this recommendation, we used data (n = 3947) from four European cities collected in the framework of the PHENOTYPE study: Barcelona (Spain), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), Kaunas (Lithuania) and Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom) to obtain residential access to NOE (straight or network distances, using 300 m and 150 m buffers, to NOE larger than 1 hectare or 0.5 hectare) and use of NOE (i.e., self-reported time spent in NOE). Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between residential access and use of NOE. The models with the strongest association with time spent in NOE in the combined sample were for those living within 300 m straight line distance to either 0.5 ha or 1 ha NOE. Noting that the only indicator that was consistent across all individual cities was living with 150 m network buffer of NOE (of at least 1 ha), this warrants further exploration in reducing recommendations of 300 m straight-line distance to 150 m network distance to 1 ha of NOE for a general indicator for cities within Europe. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural outdoor environments; green space; access; use; distance; time spent natural outdoor environments; green space; access; use; distance; time spent
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MDPI and ACS Style

Masterson, D.; Triguero-Mas, M.; Marquez, S.; Zijlema, W.; Martinez, D.; Gidlow, C.; Smith, G.; Hurst, G.; Cirach, M.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Van den Berg, M.; Kruize, H.; Maas, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Use of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Different Populations in Europe in Relation to Access: Implications for Policy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2226. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042226

AMA Style

Masterson D, Triguero-Mas M, Marquez S, Zijlema W, Martinez D, Gidlow C, Smith G, Hurst G, Cirach M, Grazuleviciene R, Van den Berg M, Kruize H, Maas J, Nieuwenhuijsen M. Use of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Different Populations in Europe in Relation to Access: Implications for Policy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(4):2226. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042226

Chicago/Turabian Style

Masterson, Daniel, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Sandra Marquez, Wilma Zijlema, David Martinez, Christopher Gidlow, Graham Smith, Gemma Hurst, Marta Cirach, Regina Grazuleviciene, Magdalena Van den Berg, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas, and Mark Nieuwenhuijsen. 2022. "Use of the Natural Outdoor Environment in Different Populations in Europe in Relation to Access: Implications for Policy" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 4: 2226. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042226

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