In Whom Do We Trust? A Multifoci Person-Centered Perspective on Institutional Trust during COVID-19
1.1. A Person-Centered Approach to Trust in Government
1.2. Trust-in-Government Profiles and COVID-19 Attitudes and Compliance
1.3. Trust-in-Government Profiles and Job Insecurity
1.4. Trust-in-Government Profiles and Affective Commitment
1.5. Trust-in-Government Profiles and Helping Behavior
1.6. Trust-in-Government Profiles and Psychological Well-Being
2.1. Participants, Procedure, and Measures
2.2. Statistical Analyses: Latent Profile Analysis (LPA)
4.1. Theoretical Implications
4.2. Practical Implications
4.3. Limitations and Future Directions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|African American or Black||11.5|
|American Indian or Native American||0.6|
|Asian or Pacific Islander||7.4|
|Hispanic or Latino/a||9.3|
|Less than a high school diploma||0.3|
|High school diploma or GED||8.7|
|High school diploma plus some technical training or apprenticeship||1.0|
|Graduate from college (BA/BS or other Bachelor’s degree)||49.8|
|Some graduate school||2.4|
|Graduate or professional degree||15.0|
|Married or living with a partner||55.7|
|Less than $10,000||1.9|
|$10,000 to $19,999||6.6|
|$20,000 to $29,999||8.6|
|$30,000 to $39,999||12.8|
|$40,000 to $49,999||12.5|
|$50,000 to $59,999||11.6|
|$60,000 to $69,999||11.6|
|$70,000 to $79,999||10.1|
|$80,000 to $89,999||5.0|
|$90,000 to $99,999||4.8|
|$100,000 to $149,999||10.2|
|$150,000 or more||4.4|
|Accommodation or food services||4.9|
|Administration and Support Services||4.6|
|Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting||0.8|
|Arts, entertainment or recreation||3.1|
|Finance or Insurance||11.7|
|Health Care or Social Assistance||9.1|
|Management of companies or enterprises||2.8|
|Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction||0.1|
|Professional, Scientific or Technical Services||13.7|
|Real Estate, Rental and Leasing||1.2|
|Transportation or Warehousing||3.5|
|Variable||Definition||Items & Origin||Response Option||Reliability|
|Trust in federal government|
|Beliefs about the degree to which the federal government are honest, care for the public, have benevolent and caring intentions towards the public, and make a good faith effort to react to the needs and concerns of the public .||Read each statement and indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each .|
(1) I trust the leaders of the federal government to make decisions that are good for everyone in the U.S.
(2) People’s basic rights are well protected by the federal government
(3) The federal government cares about the well-being of everyone in the U.S.
(4) The federal government is honest
(5) The federal government considers the views of the people in the U.S.
(6) The federal government takes account of the needs and concerns of the people in the U.S.
(7) The federal government gives honest explanations for their actions to the people in the U.S.
strongly disagree to strongly agree
|Trust in state government|
|Beliefs about the degree to which the state government are honest, care for the public, have benevolent and caring intentions towards the public, and make a good faith effort to react to the needs and concerns of the public .||Read each statement and indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each .|
(1) I trust the leaders of the state government to make decisions that are good for everyone in the state
(2) People’s basic rights are well protected by the state government
(3) The state government cares about the well-being of everyone in the state
(4) The state government is honest
(5) The state government considers the views of the people in the state
(6) The state government takes account of the needs and concerns of the people in the state
(7) The state government gives honest explanations for their actions to the people in the state
|1–7 strongly disagree to strongly agree||0.97|
|Attitudes toward COVID-19 prevention guidelines|
|The extent to which individuals have positive attitudes toward the recommended COVID-19 prevention guidelines ||Please indicate your thoughts regarding physical/social distancing and hygiene recommendations from the CDC .|
(1) It is important to maintain a distance of at least 6 ft. from others when out in public or at work.
(2) Staying at home except to conduct essential tasks (e.g., grocery shopping, medical appointments) is an effective way of stopping the spread of COVID-19.
(3) Disinfecting frequently used items and surfaces is beneficial to prevent spreading the virus.
(4) Frequently washing hands for a minimum of 20 s can reduce the spread of the virus.
(5) Avoiding touching my face will help protect me from COVID-19.
(6) When coughing or sneezing, people should aim inside their elbow or into a tissue.
(7) The economic cost of social distancing measures is worth the price to protect public health.
(8) Wearing a mask (e.g., N95 respirator masks, medical masks, or fabric masks) while out in public can reduce my chances of potentially spreading COVID-19 to others.
|1–7 strongly disagree to strongly agree||0.90|
|Behavioral compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines|
|The extent to which individuals comply with the recommended COVID-19 prevention guidelines ||Please indicate how often you currently engage in the following behaviors to prevent spreading the coronavirus .|
(1) I maintain a distance of at least 6 ft. from others when out in public or at work;
(2) I stay at home except to conduct essential tasks (e.g., grocery shopping, medical appointments).
(3) I disinfect frequently used items and surfaces.
(4) I frequently wash hands for a minimum of 20 s.
(5) I avoid touching my face.
(6) When coughing or sneezing, I aim inside my elbow or into a tissue.
(7) I wear a mask (e.g., N95 respirator masks, medical masks, or fabric masks) when I am out in public.
Never to always
|Perceived job insecurity|
|“perceived threat to the continuity and stability of employment as it is currently experienced” (, p. 1911)||What is your FUTURE EMPLOYMENT like in your organization? |
My future employment is:
(3) Up in the air
(7) My job is almost guaranteed
(8) Can depend on being here
|Employees’ sense of belonging towards and identification with their employer that increases their involvement in the organization’s activities, their willingness to pursue the organization’s goals, and their desire to stay with the organization ||The following statements are about how you feel about your organization. Please read each statement carefully and indicate to what extent you agree that each of the following statements .|
(1) I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization.
(2) I really feel as if this organization’s problems are my own.
(3) I do not feel a strong sense of “belonging” to my organization.
(4) I do not feel “emotionally attached” to this organization.
(5) I do not feel like “part of the family” at my organization.
(6) This organization has a great deal of personal meaning for me.
|1–7 strongly disagree to strongly agree||0.94|
|Voluntarily helping others with, or the prevention of, work-related problems ||Read each statement and indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each .|
(1) I help others who have been absent.
(2) I help others who have heavy workloads.
(3) I take time to listen to co-workers’ problems and worries.
(4) I go out of my way to help new employees.
|1–7 strongly disagree to strongly agree||0.88|
|The extent to which individuals experience positive emotions .||During the past month… |
(1) How often have you been a very nervous person?
(2) How often have you felt calm and peaceful?
(3) How often have you felt downhearted and blue?
(4) How often have you felt so down in the dumps that nothing could cheer you up?
(5) How often were you a happy person?
none of the time to all of the time
|1. Trust in federal government||492||3.31||1.60||0.96|
|2. Trust in state government||492||4.26||1.51||0.45 **||0.97|
|3. COVID-19 attitudes||422||6.18||1.00||−0.07||0.19 **||0.90|
|4. COVID-19 behaviors||410||3.99||0.69||−0.01||0.20 **||0.73 **||0.84|
|5. Job insecurity||399||0.91||1.18||−0.20 **||−0.16 **||0.00||−0.04||0.97|
|6. Helping behavior||386||5.50||1.13||0.19 **||0.27 **||0.19 **||0.32 **||−0.24 **||0.88|
|7. Affective commitment||399||4.55||1.69||0.28 **||0.28 **||0.07||0.25 **||−0.45 **||0.46 **||0.94|
|8. Psychological well-being||422||4.44||1.20||0.18 **||0.17 **||0.10 *||0.15 **||−0.36 **||0.30 **||0.40 **||0.90|
|No. of Profiles||LL||FP||SABIC||BLRT (p)||LMR (p)||AIC||BIC||Entropy|
|Profile||N||% of Sample||Trust in Federal Government||Trust in State Government|
|Federal Trust (a)||Distrust (b)||High Trust (c)||State Trust (d)||Ambivalent (e)||Chi Square|
|COVID-19 Attitudes||5.892 d||6.068 d||6.252 d,e||6.596 a,b,c,e||5.849 c,d||42.02 ***|
|COVID-19 Compliance||3.750 c,d||3.914 d||4.105 a,e||4.227 a,b,e||3.743 c,e||21.93 ***|
|Perceived job insecurity||0.877||1.187 c||0.482 b,d,e||1.012 c||1.017 c||26.71 **|
|Affective commitment||3.714 c||3.804 c,d,e||5.369 a,b,d,e||4.572 b,c||4.408 b,c||55.438 ***|
|Helping behavior||4.819||5.105 c,d||5.916 b,d,e||5.607 b,c||5.330 c||36.24 ***|
|Psychological well-being||5.015 b||4.061 a,c||4.781 b,d,e||4.374 c||4.444 c||19.40 **|
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Jiang, L.; Bettac, E.L.; Lee, H.J.; Probst, T.M. In Whom Do We Trust? A Multifoci Person-Centered Perspective on Institutional Trust during COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1815. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031815
Jiang L, Bettac EL, Lee HJ, Probst TM. In Whom Do We Trust? A Multifoci Person-Centered Perspective on Institutional Trust during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1815. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031815Chicago/Turabian Style
Jiang, Lixin, Erica L. Bettac, Hyun Jung Lee, and Tahira M. Probst. 2022. "In Whom Do We Trust? A Multifoci Person-Centered Perspective on Institutional Trust during COVID-19" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1815. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031815