3. Research Questions
4. Data and Methods
4.2. Method of Analysis
4.3. Demographic Characteristics of Interviewees
4.4. Interview Questions
5.1. Mothers’ Parenting Beliefs and Behavior
Hyunsoo: My mother was not like “typical Korean mothers”. … Her priority was to make us exercise regularly and maintain good relationships. … nothing like “chee-ma-pa-ram” [a term referring to intense involvement of the mother in children’s education, literally, “the wind caused by a woman’s skirt”] … She had the “Japanese style”. Her [Japanese] friends were mostly the same. Their children do things on their own.
Lia: My mother’s “educational zeal” was nothing like Korean mothers’. The education zeal of Japan is lower than that of Korea.
Nahee: My mom wasn’t concerned about my studies much… I even at one point wished my mom pushed me more [to study harder]. My friends were jealous of me… Their moms’ priority was to make sure they studied hard.
5.2. Potential Factors for Japanese Mothers’ Beliefs and Behavior
Semi: My mom told me that my school curriculum doesn’t have enough physical activities classes. My mom had a swimming class and was in a baseball club in both her middle school and high school. She didn’t understand the Korean education curriculum.
Hyesun: [There was] no such thing for my mom. My hometown was close to factories and there was no “educational zeal” type atmosphere in town. … [There was] no information about private academies or tutors… I was asking myself once “is it because my mom was raised in Japan that she didn’t care about hanging out with other mothers to get information?”
Somee: Mom would get along with Japanese mothers only. I never saw her hang out with Korean mothers. I don’t know if she was sharing information with other mothers. They talked in Japanese. But it felt more like social hangouts, not an educational-information-sharing network.
Sangjee: My mom didn’t communicate with Korean mothers… [She was] far from being like those Korean mothers [in terms of parenting]. She never interacted with other mothers to share information about where private academies were. I was the one to find out about hakwon [private tutoring institute].
Somee: My mom thinks it would be a [financial] loss if she were naturalized in Korea. If she becomes Korean, we will lose the benefit provided for multicultural families. We need to get that [from the government].
Hyomin: Mom tailored to each of her children. She would really care about each of us in detail. She had a job and raised us carefully at the same time. She instructed me on what to do. For example, she would check on what time I went to bed, whether I studied and such. She told me I can never date a woman on my own because I have to be matched with a woman at the Church.
Hyesun: “I am closer to my mom than my dad because we share lots of things. Also, we have similarities as women. I talk with her about every little thing. I don’t do so with my dad. He always tries to give me a solution even before I finish what I have to say”.
Hyesun: Fathers in general don’t like the church because they need to spare their money for regular church offerings. The church has a different meaning to each”.
Sangjee: My mom was like, “you live your own life and I live my own life”. My mom would let me become whatever I want to be. If anything, my parents were anxious for me to remain religious rather than to study harder.
Jeemin: I had to do things myself. My parents didn’t really force me to study or go to hakwon but told me to get information myself if I needed it. My parents were always busy taking care of church-related stuff.
6. Discussion and Implication
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Job status||Military||Military||Military||College inactive||College||College||College||High school||College||Un-employed||Em-ployed|
|Socioeconomic status||Middle||Middle||Middle||Middle||Middle||Lower middle||Middle||Middle||Lower||Middle||Lower|
|Mother’s education||College||High school||2-year College||High school||College||High school||Master’s||College||Master’s||College||Middle school|
|Father’s education||College||College||2-year College||High||High||College||Master’s||High School||College||High School||High School|
|Job status||College||College||College inactive||College||College||College||College||College||College||College|
|Socioeconomic status||Lower middle||Lower middle||Middle||Lower||Lower middle||Middle||Middle||Middle||Upper middle||Middle|
|Mother’s education||College||High school||College||High school||High school||High school||High school||College||College||College|
|Father’s education||High School||Master’s||High School||High School||High School||2-year College||College||College||College||High School|
|Mothers’ prioritizing||Relationship with mother; priorities in childrearing||“What is your relationship like with your mother in general?”|
“What was most important to your mother when raising you?”
“Could you order her priorities?”
|Perceived maternal attitudes and behavior||Private tutoring experiences; decision-making as for the use of private tutoring; mothers’ networking with other mothers||“Have you ever attended a private tutoring institute for supplementary classes?” |
“Did your parents have any parental network for information-sharing?”
“How do you compare your mother’s involvement in your education to the mothers of your peers?”
|Father’s role in children’s education||Relationship with father; father’s role||“What is your relationship like with your father in general?”|
“What was most important to your father when raising you?”
|Impact of mothers’ religious devotion on learning style of child||Mother’s religious devotion; mother’s role in the church||“Were your parents devoted to the religion?”|
“How important was the church to your parents?”
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