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Article

Effects of Two Short-Term Aerobic Exercises on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults during COVID-19 Confinement in Japan: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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Information Somatics Laboratory, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan
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Computational Engineering Applications Unit, Head Office for Information Systems and Cybersecurity, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
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Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe 650-0017, Japan
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Super Reha, LLC., Tokyo 198-0074, Japan
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Care 21 Co., Ltd., Osaka 530-0003, Japan
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General Education Center, Nagano University of Health and Medicine, Nagano 381-2227, Japan
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Center for the Promotion of Social Data Science Education and Research, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo 186-8601, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ellen Glickman and Guglielmo Bonaccorsi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106202
Received: 15 April 2022 / Revised: 11 May 2022 / Accepted: 17 May 2022 / Published: 19 May 2022
Aerobic exercise improves executive function—which tends to decline with age—and dual-task training with aerobic exercise improves the global cognitive function. However, home-based older adults could not follow these programs due to social isolation during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Therefore, we conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial with 88 healthy older adults without dementia or sarcopenia who were randomly assigned into the Nordic walking (aerobic exercise), dance (dual-task training with aerobic exercise), or control group. The participants in both exercise intervention groups trained for 30 min, three times per week, for 4 weeks. All groups consumed amino acid-containing foods three times per week. We found that both exercise intervention groups showed improvements in executive function, while the dance group showed additional improvement in global cognitive function. The dance group showed a higher maximum gait speed, greater improvement in imitation ability, and improved executive function and cognitive function than the Nordic walking group. The intervention programs did not significantly affect the muscle mass or muscle output than the control group; however, both programs improved the participant neurological functions such as the heel lift, with dance training being the most effective intervention. In conclusion, dance training effectively improves cognitive function. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerobic exercise; cognitive function; COVID-19; dancing; Nordic walking; older adults; physical function; body composition aerobic exercise; cognitive function; COVID-19; dancing; Nordic walking; older adults; physical function; body composition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miyazaki, A.; Okuyama, T.; Mori, H.; Sato, K.; Kumamoto, K.; Hiyama, A. Effects of Two Short-Term Aerobic Exercises on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults during COVID-19 Confinement in Japan: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 6202. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106202

AMA Style

Miyazaki A, Okuyama T, Mori H, Sato K, Kumamoto K, Hiyama A. Effects of Two Short-Term Aerobic Exercises on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults during COVID-19 Confinement in Japan: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(10):6202. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106202

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miyazaki, Atsuko, Takashi Okuyama, Hayato Mori, Kazuhisa Sato, Keigo Kumamoto, and Atsushi Hiyama. 2022. "Effects of Two Short-Term Aerobic Exercises on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults during COVID-19 Confinement in Japan: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 10: 6202. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106202

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