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Article

Concurrent Heavy Metal Exposures and Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Case-Control Study from the Katanga Mining Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo

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Unit of Training and Research in Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi 07610, Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Doctoral School for Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt University, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
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Department of Neurology and School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97007, USA
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Department of Internal Medicine, Official University of Bukavu, Bukavu 11102, Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Department of Internal Medicine, Service of Neurology, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi 07610, Democratic Republic of the Congo
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaymie Meliker
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094956
Received: 20 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Blood and/or urine levels of 27 heavy metals were determined by ICPMS in 41 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 29 presumably healthy subjects from the Katanga Copperbelt (KC), in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). After adjusting for age, gender, education level, and renal function, DCM probability was almost maximal for blood concentrations above 0.75 and 150 µg/dL for arsenic and copper, respectively. Urinary concentrations above 1 for chromium, 20 for copper, 600 for zinc, 30 for selenium, 2 for cadmium, 0.2 for antimony, 0.5 for thallium, and 0.05 for uranium, all in μg/g of creatinine, were also associated with increased DCM probability. Concurrent and multiple exposures to heavy metals, well beyond permissible levels, are associated with increased probability for DCM. Study findings warrant screening for metal toxicity in case of DCM and prompt public health measures to reduce exposures in the KC, DRC. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental exposures; heavy metals; idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; Katanga Copperbelt environmental exposures; heavy metals; idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; Katanga Copperbelt
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MDPI and ACS Style

Malamba-Lez, D.; Tshala-Katumbay, D.; Bito, V.; Rigo, J.-M.; Kipenge Kyandabike, R.; Ngoy Yolola, E.; Katchunga, P.; Koba-Bora, B.; Ngoy-Nkulu, D. Concurrent Heavy Metal Exposures and Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Case-Control Study from the Katanga Mining Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094956

AMA Style

Malamba-Lez D, Tshala-Katumbay D, Bito V, Rigo J-M, Kipenge Kyandabike R, Ngoy Yolola E, Katchunga P, Koba-Bora B, Ngoy-Nkulu D. Concurrent Heavy Metal Exposures and Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Case-Control Study from the Katanga Mining Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094956

Chicago/Turabian Style

Malamba-Lez, Didier, Désire Tshala-Katumbay, Virginie Bito, Jean-Michel Rigo, Richie Kipenge Kyandabike, Eric Ngoy Yolola, Philippe Katchunga, Béatrice Koba-Bora, and Dophra Ngoy-Nkulu. 2021. "Concurrent Heavy Metal Exposures and Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Case-Control Study from the Katanga Mining Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094956

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