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Article

Assessing the Impact of a Hilly Environment on Depressive Symptoms among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Head Office for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, Shimane 693-8501, Japan
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Center for Primary Health Care Research, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, 20502 Malmö, Sweden
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Department of Sports Sociology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Sociology, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan
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Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Shimane 690-8504, Japan
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Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029-5674, USA
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Department of Functional Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane 693-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frank Eves
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094520
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 24 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Although some neighborhood environmental factors have been found to affect depressive symptoms, few studies have focused on the impact of living in a hilly environment, i.e., land slope, on depressive symptoms among rural older adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether a land slope is associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in rural areas. Data were collected from 935 participants, aged 65 years and older, who lived in Shimane prefecture, Japan. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and defined on the basis of an SDS score ≥ 40. Land slopes within a 400 m network buffer were assessed using geographic information systems. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 215 (23.0%) participants reported depressive symptoms. The land slope was positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01–1.08) after adjusting for all confounders. In a rural setting, living in a hillier environment was associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults in Japan. View Full-Text
Keywords: land slope; rural area; depression; public health land slope; rural area; depression; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abe, T.; Okuyama, K.; Hamano, T.; Takeda, M.; Yamasaki, M.; Isomura, M.; Nakano, K.; Sundquist, K.; Nabika, T. Assessing the Impact of a Hilly Environment on Depressive Symptoms among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4520. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094520

AMA Style

Abe T, Okuyama K, Hamano T, Takeda M, Yamasaki M, Isomura M, Nakano K, Sundquist K, Nabika T. Assessing the Impact of a Hilly Environment on Depressive Symptoms among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4520. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094520

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abe, Takafumi, Kenta Okuyama, Tsuyoshi Hamano, Miwako Takeda, Masayuki Yamasaki, Minoru Isomura, Kunihiko Nakano, Kristina Sundquist, and Toru Nabika. 2021. "Assessing the Impact of a Hilly Environment on Depressive Symptoms among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4520. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094520

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