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Distribution of Dermacentor silvarum and Associated Pathogens: Meta-Analysis of Global Published Data and a Field Survey in China

1
State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, China
2
Institute of EcoHealth, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
3
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, China
4
Department of Vector Control, Shanxi Provence Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030012, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094430
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
Dermacentor silvarum is an obligate blood sucking arthropod and transmits various pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Recently several new viruses were detected in D. silvarum as an emerging disease threat. In this study, we aimed to analyze its geographical distribution and associated pathogens. Data were collected from multiple sources, including a field survey, reference book, and literature review. We searched various electronic databases with the terms “Dermacentor silvarum” OR “D. silvarum” for studies published since 1963 and the positive rates for Dermacentor silvarum-associated pathogens were estimated by meta-analysis. D. silvarum was found only in four countries in Eurasia, ranging from 22° N to 57° N latitude. At least 20 human pathogens were associated with D. silvarum, including five species of spotted fever group rickettsiae, three species in the family of Anaplasmataceae, three genospecies in the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Francisella tularensis, Babesia venatorum, Coxiella buenetii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and five species of virus. Among them, Rickettsia raoultii was widely detected in D. silvarum, showing the highest pooled positive rate (25.15%; 95% CI 13.31–39.27). Our work presents the most comprehensive data and analysis (to our knowledge) for the geographical distribution of D. silvarum and associated pathogens, revealing an emerging threat to public health and stocking farming. Continued surveillance and further investigations should be enhanced. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dermacentor silvarum; ticks; tick-borne diseases; pathogens; geographical distribution Dermacentor silvarum; ticks; tick-borne diseases; pathogens; geographical distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, W.-B.; Shi, W.-Q.; Wang, Q.; Pan, Y.-S.; Chang, Q.-C.; Jiang, B.-G.; Cheng, J.-X.; Cui, X.-M.; Zhou, Y.-H.; Wei, J.-T.; Sun, Y.; Jiang, J.-F.; Jia, N.; Cao, W.-C. Distribution of Dermacentor silvarum and Associated Pathogens: Meta-Analysis of Global Published Data and a Field Survey in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094430

AMA Style

Guo W-B, Shi W-Q, Wang Q, Pan Y-S, Chang Q-C, Jiang B-G, Cheng J-X, Cui X-M, Zhou Y-H, Wei J-T, Sun Y, Jiang J-F, Jia N, Cao W-C. Distribution of Dermacentor silvarum and Associated Pathogens: Meta-Analysis of Global Published Data and a Field Survey in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9):4430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Wen-Bin, Wen-Qiang Shi, Qian Wang, Yu-Sheng Pan, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Bao-Gui Jiang, Jing-Xia Cheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Yu-Hao Zhou, Jia-Te Wei, Yi Sun, Jia-Fu Jiang, Na Jia, and Wu-Chun Cao. 2021. "Distribution of Dermacentor silvarum and Associated Pathogens: Meta-Analysis of Global Published Data and a Field Survey in China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 9: 4430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094430

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