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Article

Heat Acclimation Following Heat Acclimatization Elicits Additional Physiological Improvements in Male Endurance Athletes

1
Department of Kinesiology, Korey Stringer Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
2
Department of Kinesiology, Samford University, Birmingham, AL 35229, USA
3
Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
4
Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084366
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 18 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport in Stressful Conditions and Environments)
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of heat acclimatization (HAz) followed by heat acclimation (HA) on physiological adaptations. 25 male endurance athletes (age 36 ± 12 y, height 178.8 ± 6.39 cm, body mass 73.03 ± 8.97 kg, and VO2peak 57.5 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed HAz and HA. HAz was 3 months of self-directed summer training. In the laboratory, a 5-day HA prescribed exercise to target a hyperthermic zone (HZHA) of Trec between 38.50 and 39.75 °C for 60 min. Exercise trials were 60 min of running (59% ± 2% VO2peak) in an environmental chamber (wet bulb globe temperature 29.53 ± 0.63 °C) and administered at: baseline, post-HAz, and post-HAz+HA. Measured variables included internal body temperature (Trec), heart rate (HR), and sweat rate (SR). Repeated measure ANOVAs and post hoc comparisons were used to assess statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences. Trec was lower post-HAz+HA (38.03 ± 0.39 °C) than post-HAz (38.25 ± 0.42 °C, p = 0.009) and baseline (38.29 ± 0.37 °C, p = 0.005). There were no differences between baseline and post-HAz (p = 0.479) in Trec. HR was lower post-HAz (143 ± 12 bpm, p = 0.002) and post-HAz+HA (134 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.001) than baseline (138 ± 14 bpm). HR was lower post-HAz+HA than post-HAz (p = 0.013). SR was higher post-HAz+HA (1.93 ± 0.47 L·h−1) than post-HAz (1.76 ± 0.43 L·h−1, p = 0.027). Combination HAz and HA increased physiological outcomes above HAz. This method can be used to improve performance and safety in addition to HAz alone. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermoregulation; heat mitigation; aerobic; heat tolerance; heat illness; training strategy thermoregulation; heat mitigation; aerobic; heat tolerance; heat illness; training strategy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benjamin, C.L.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Struder, J.F.; Szymanski, M.R.; Manning, C.N.; Grundstein, A.J.; Lee, E.C.; Huggins, R.A.; Armstrong, L.E.; Casa, D.J. Heat Acclimation Following Heat Acclimatization Elicits Additional Physiological Improvements in Male Endurance Athletes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4366. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084366

AMA Style

Benjamin CL, Sekiguchi Y, Struder JF, Szymanski MR, Manning CN, Grundstein AJ, Lee EC, Huggins RA, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ. Heat Acclimation Following Heat Acclimatization Elicits Additional Physiological Improvements in Male Endurance Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4366. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084366

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benjamin, Courteney L., Yasuki Sekiguchi, Jeb F. Struder, Michael R. Szymanski, Ciara N. Manning, Andrew J. Grundstein, Elaine C. Lee, Robert A. Huggins, Lawrence E. Armstrong, and Douglas J. Casa 2021. "Heat Acclimation Following Heat Acclimatization Elicits Additional Physiological Improvements in Male Endurance Athletes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4366. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084366

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