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Are Essential Women’s Healthcare Services Fully Covered? A Comparative Analysis of Policy Documents in Shanghai and New York City from 1978–2017

by 1,2,3,†, 1,2,3,†, 1,2,3, 2,4, 2,5, 2,6, 2,7, 2,8, 2,9, 2,10, 2,11, 2,12, 2,13, 2,14, 2,15, 2,16, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3,* and 1,2,3,*
1
Research Institute of Health Development Strategies, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
3
Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
4
Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou 310012, China
5
School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
6
Project Supervision Center of National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100044, China
7
Department of Grassroots Public Health Management Group, Public Health Management Branch of Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, Shanghai 201800, China
8
School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
9
School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
10
School of Health Service Management, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China
11
School of Management, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, China
12
Committee on Medicine and Health of Central Committee of China Zhi Gong Party, Beijing 100011, China
13
Institute of Inspection and Supervision, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission, Shanghai 200031, China
14
Shanghai Municipal Health Commission, Shanghai 200031, China
15
Jiangsu Preventive Medicine Association, Nanjing 210009, China
16
Changzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changzhou 213003, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed to the work equally.
Academic Editor: Stuart Gilmour
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084261
Received: 22 February 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 10 April 2021 / Published: 17 April 2021
This study aimed to analyze the changes in the 10 major categories of women’s healthcare services (WHSs) in Shanghai (SH) and New York City (NYC) from 1978 to 2017, and examine the relationship between these changes and maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Content analysis of available public policy documents concerning women’s health was conducted. Two indicators were designed to represent the delivery of WHSs: The essential women’s healthcare service coverage rate (ESCR) and the assessable essential healthcare service coverage rate (AESCR). Spearman correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the two indicators and MMR. In SH, the ESCR increased from 10% to 90%, AESCR increased from 0% to 90%, and MMR decreased from 24.0/100,000 to 1.01/100,000. In NYC, the ESCR increased from 0% to 80%, the AESCR increased from 0% to 60%, and the MMR decreased from 24.7/100,000 to 21.4/100,000. The MMR significantly decreased as both indicators increased (p < 0.01). Major advances have been made in women’s healthcare in both cities, with SH having a better improvement effect. A common shortcoming for both was the lack of menopausal health service provision. The promotion of women’s health still needs to receive continuous attention from governments of SH and NYC. The experiences of the two cities showed that placing WHSs among policy priorities is effective in improving service status. View Full-Text
Keywords: women’s healthcare; service coverage; service assessment; Shanghai; New York City; maternal mortality ratio women’s healthcare; service coverage; service assessment; Shanghai; New York City; maternal mortality ratio
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, Q.; Yu, Q.; Wang, X.; Shi, P.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Pu, C.; Xu, L.; Hu, Z.; Ma, A.; Gong, Z.; Xu, T.; Wang, P.; Wang, H.; Hao, C.; Li, L.; Gao, X.; Li, C.; Hao, M. Are Essential Women’s Healthcare Services Fully Covered? A Comparative Analysis of Policy Documents in Shanghai and New York City from 1978–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4261. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084261

AMA Style

Zhou Q, Yu Q, Wang X, Shi P, Shen Q, Zhang Z, Chen Z, Pu C, Xu L, Hu Z, Ma A, Gong Z, Xu T, Wang P, Wang H, Hao C, Li L, Gao X, Li C, Hao M. Are Essential Women’s Healthcare Services Fully Covered? A Comparative Analysis of Policy Documents in Shanghai and New York City from 1978–2017. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4261. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084261

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Qingyu, Qinwen Yu, Xin Wang, Peiwu Shi, Qunhong Shen, Zhaoyang Zhang, Zheng Chen, Chuan Pu, Lingzhong Xu, Zhi Hu, Anning Ma, Zhaohui Gong, Tianqiang Xu, Panshi Wang, Hua Wang, Chao Hao, Li Li, Xiang Gao, Chengyue Li, and Mo Hao. 2021. "Are Essential Women’s Healthcare Services Fully Covered? A Comparative Analysis of Policy Documents in Shanghai and New York City from 1978–2017" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 8: 4261. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084261

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