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Open AccessArticle

Neuroenhancement in French and Romanian University Students, Motivations and Associated Factors

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Cluj-Napoca Unit—The Net-Work of International Francophone Clinical Epidemiology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400000 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Univ. Littoral Côte d’Opale, Univ. Lille Artois ULR 7369—URePSSS—Unité de Recherche Pluridiscipli-Naire Sport Santé Société, F-59375 Dunkerque, France
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Clinical Investigation Center 1404 and INSERM 1073, Rouen University Hospital and Rouen Normandie University, 76000 Rouen, France
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Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion and INSERM 1073, Rouen University Hospital and Rouen Normandie University, 76000 Rouen, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Supannapa Maklai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083880
Received: 3 March 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 3 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the use of neuroenhancers, the motivations and factors associated with their use in French and Romanian university students. Students from two universities in France (Rouen and Opal Coast University) and one in Romania (Cluj-Napoca) were asked to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, either online or on paper, about the use of three different categories of substance: Prescription drugs (methylphenidate, modafinil, and beta-blockers), drugs of abuse (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines), and soft enhancers (coffee, vitamins, caffeine tablets, and energy drinks). In total, 1110 students were included: The users were 2.2% for prescription drugs, 4.3% for drugs of abuse, and 55.0% for soft enhancers. Students used neuroenhancement to stay awake for study (69.3%), to improve concentration (55.5%), to decrease stress (40.9%), and to improve memory (39.6%). Neuroenhancement was considered to meet expectations by 74.4% of users. The factors associated with the use of drugs of abuse were frequent binge drinking (Adjusted Odds Ratio—AOR: 6.49 [95% CI: 2.53–16.6]), smoking (AOR: 5.50 [95% CI: 2.98–10.14]), having a student job (AOR: 2.42 [95% CI 1.13–5.17]), and being male (AOR: 2.23 [95% CI:1.21–4.11]). No significant associations with eating disorders were detected for any of the three categories of substances. University students reported neuroenhancement with prescription drugs, drugs of abuse, and mainly soft enhancers. These substances were used mainly to increase the waking hours. Educational programs in universities seem to be required in order to increase student awareness of the problems caused by neuroenhancements, and to decrease the associated risks by changing students’ attitudes and beliefs. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroenhancement; prescription drugs; drugs of abuse; soft enhancers; students neuroenhancement; prescription drugs; drugs of abuse; soft enhancers; students
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brumboiu, I.; Porrovecchio, A.; Peze, T.; Hurdiel, R.; Cazacu, I.; Mogosan, C.; Ladner, J.; Tavolacci, M.-P. Neuroenhancement in French and Romanian University Students, Motivations and Associated Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3880. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083880

AMA Style

Brumboiu I, Porrovecchio A, Peze T, Hurdiel R, Cazacu I, Mogosan C, Ladner J, Tavolacci M-P. Neuroenhancement in French and Romanian University Students, Motivations and Associated Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):3880. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083880

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brumboiu, Irina; Porrovecchio, Alessandro; Peze, Thierry; Hurdiel, Remy; Cazacu, Irina; Mogosan, Cristina; Ladner, Joel; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre. 2021. "Neuroenhancement in French and Romanian University Students, Motivations and Associated Factors" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 8: 3880. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083880

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