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Article

Pragmatic Quasi-Experimental Controlled Trial Evaluating the Outcomes of Blended CBT Compared to Face-to-Face CBT and Treatment as Usual for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

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Clinical Child and Family Studies, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, GGZ Oost Brabant, 5427 EM Boekel, The Netherlands
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Trimbos Institute, 3521 VS Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Centre, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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APH Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, 9712 CP Groningen, The Netherlands
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Accare Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Groningen University Centre, 9712 CP Groningen, The Netherlands
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Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, 6525 XZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Triversum, GGZ Noord-Holland-Noord, 1817 EZ Alkmaar, The Netherlands
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TOPP-Zorg, Driebergen-Rijsenburg, 3972 WG Driebergen-Rijsenburg, The Netherlands
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Child and Youth Psychiatry, Altrecht, 3524 SH Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nóra Kerekes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063102
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 11 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
Depression is a major problem in youth mental health. Current treatment is on average effective, but adolescents are hesitant to seek help. Blended treatment could lower the barriers to seeking treatment. Evidence on effectiveness is, however, scarce. The present pragmatic quasi-experimental controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of blended cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to face-to-face CBT and treatment as usual. A total of 129 adolescents with clinical depression (82.2% female), aged 13–22 (M = 16.60, SD = 2.03) received blended CBT, face-to-face CBT or treatment as usual. Clinical diagnosis, depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and six-months follow-up. Participants receiving blended CBT were, compared to participants receiving face-to-face CBT and treatment as usual, evenly likely to be in remission from their depressive disorder at post-intervention and at six-month follow-up. Depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time in all three conditions, and changes were not significantly different between conditions. Other secondary outcomes (suicide risk, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, severity of depression, and global functioning) did not differ between treatment conditions at post-intervention and six-month follow-up. Since there was no evidence for favorable outcomes for face-to-face therapies above blended CBT, blended CBT may also be an effective treatment format in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; depression; treatment; blended; CBT adolescents; depression; treatment; blended; CBT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rasing, S.P.A.; Stikkelbroek, Y.A.J.; den Hollander, W.; Riper, H.; Deković, M.; Nauta, M.H.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Immink, M.C.P.; Spuij, M.; Bodden, D.H.M. Pragmatic Quasi-Experimental Controlled Trial Evaluating the Outcomes of Blended CBT Compared to Face-to-Face CBT and Treatment as Usual for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3102. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063102

AMA Style

Rasing SPA, Stikkelbroek YAJ, den Hollander W, Riper H, Deković M, Nauta MH, Creemers DHM, Immink MCP, Spuij M, Bodden DHM. Pragmatic Quasi-Experimental Controlled Trial Evaluating the Outcomes of Blended CBT Compared to Face-to-Face CBT and Treatment as Usual for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):3102. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063102

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rasing, Sanne P.A., Yvonne A.J. Stikkelbroek, Wouter den Hollander, Heleen Riper, Maja Deković, Maaike H. Nauta, Daan H.M. Creemers, Marianne C.P. Immink, Mariken Spuij, and Denise H.M. Bodden 2021. "Pragmatic Quasi-Experimental Controlled Trial Evaluating the Outcomes of Blended CBT Compared to Face-to-Face CBT and Treatment as Usual for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 3102. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063102

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