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Article

Exposure to Particulate PAHs on Potential Genotoxicity and Cancer Risk among School Children Living Near the Petrochemical Industry

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Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052575
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
This study aimed to assess the association of exposure to particle-bound (PM2.5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with potential genotoxicity and cancer risk among children living near the petrochemical industry and comparative populations in Malaysia. PM2.5 samples were collected using a low-volume sampler for 24 h at three primary schools located within 5 km of the industrial area and three comparative schools more than 20 km away from any industrial activity. A gas chromatography–mass spectrometer was used to determine the analysis of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs. A total of 205 children were randomly selected to assess the DNA damage in buccal cells, employing the comet assay. Total PAHs measured in exposed and comparative schools varied, respectively, from 61.60 to 64.64 ng m−3 and from 5.93 to 35.06 ng m−3. The PAH emission in exposed schools was contributed mainly by traffic and industrial emissions, dependent on the source apportionment. The 95th percentiles of the incremental lifetime cancer risk estimated using Monte Carlo simulation revealed that the inhalation risk for the exposed children and comparative populations was 2.22 × 10−6 and 2.95 × 10−7, respectively. The degree of DNA injury was substantially more severe among the exposed children relative to the comparative community. This study reveals that higher exposure to PAHs increases the risk of genotoxic effects and cancer among children. View Full-Text
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); children; DNA damage; industry polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); children; DNA damage; industry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sopian, N.A.; Jalaludin, J.; Abu Bakar, S.; Hamedon, T.R.; Latif, M.T. Exposure to Particulate PAHs on Potential Genotoxicity and Cancer Risk among School Children Living Near the Petrochemical Industry. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2575. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052575

AMA Style

Sopian NA, Jalaludin J, Abu Bakar S, Hamedon TR, Latif MT. Exposure to Particulate PAHs on Potential Genotoxicity and Cancer Risk among School Children Living Near the Petrochemical Industry. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2575. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052575

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sopian, Nor A., Juliana Jalaludin, Suhaili Abu Bakar, Titi R. Hamedon, and Mohd T. Latif 2021. "Exposure to Particulate PAHs on Potential Genotoxicity and Cancer Risk among School Children Living Near the Petrochemical Industry" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2575. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052575

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