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Australian Experiences of Out-of-Pocket Costs and Financial Burden Following a Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review

1
Cancer Council Australia, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia
2
School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
3
Hunter Cancer Research Alliance, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
4
Department of Nursing, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052422
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 2 March 2021
(1) Background: This systematic review was conducted to identify cancer patient experiences, and the impact of out-of-pocket costs and financial burden in Australia. (2) Methods: A systematic review, following the Preferring Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, was conducted. Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PubMed were searched. The primary outcome was financial burden among cancer patients and their families in Australia. The secondary outcome was out-of-pocket costs associated with cancer care and treatment within the population sample, and the impact of financial burden. (3) Results: Nineteen studies were included, covering more than 70,000 Australians affected by cancer. Out-of-pocket costs varied by cancer type and ranged from an average of AUD 977 for breast cancer and lymphoedema patients to AUD 11,077 for prostate cancer patients. Younger aged patients (≤65 years), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, people in rural and/or remote areas, households with low income, those who were unemployed and people with private health insurance were at increased risk of experiencing out-of-pocket costs, financial burden or a combination of both. (4) Conclusions: Australians diagnosed with cancer frequently experience financial burden, and the health and financial consequences are significant. Focusing efforts on the costs of care and options about where to have care within the context of informed decisions about cancer care is necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: financial toxicity; cancer patient; systematic review; Australia financial toxicity; cancer patient; systematic review; Australia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bygrave, A.; Whittaker, K.; Paul, C.; Fradgley, E.A.; Varlow, M.; Aranda, S. Australian Experiences of Out-of-Pocket Costs and Financial Burden Following a Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2422. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052422

AMA Style

Bygrave A, Whittaker K, Paul C, Fradgley EA, Varlow M, Aranda S. Australian Experiences of Out-of-Pocket Costs and Financial Burden Following a Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2422. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052422

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bygrave, Annie, Kate Whittaker, Christine Paul, Elizabeth A. Fradgley, Megan Varlow, and Sanchia Aranda. 2021. "Australian Experiences of Out-of-Pocket Costs and Financial Burden Following a Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 5: 2422. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052422

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