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Open AccessArticle

Different Responses to Stress, Health Practices, and Self-Care during COVID-19 Lockdown: A Stratified Analysis

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School of Nursing, University of Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
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Navarra Institute for Health Research, IdiSNA, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
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Psychological Processes in Education and Health Group, School of Education and Psychology, University of Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
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Cognitive and Affective Methods in Psychology CAMP, School of Education and Psychology, University of Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
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Faculty of Psychology, University of the Basque Country, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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Colegio de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Instituto de Neurociencias, Quito 170901, Ecuador
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Faculty of Psychology, University of San Buenaventura, Bogota 1008, Colombia
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Faculty of Psychology, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago 7590943, Chile
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Faculty of Psychology, University of Málaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Riccardo Polosa, Pietro Ferrara, Luciana Albano and Venera Tomaselli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052253
Received: 12 January 2021 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyze the differential impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (3 April 2020) on stress, health practices, and self-care activities across different Hispanic countries, age range, and gender groups. One thousand and eighty-two participants from Spain, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador took part in this study. Irrespective of the country, and controlling for income level, young people, especially females, suffered a greater level of stress, perceived the situation as more severe, showed less adherence to health guidelines, and reported lower levels of health consciousness, in comparison to their male peers and older groups. However, in the case of self-care, it seems that older and female groups are generally more involved in self-care activities and adopt more healthy daily routines. These results are mostly similar between Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. However, Chile showed some different tendencies, as males reported higher levels of healthy daily routines and better adherence to health guidelines compared to females and people over the age of 60. Differences between countries, genders, and age ranges should be considered in order to improve health recommendations and adherence to guidelines. Moreover, developing community action and intersectoral strategies with a gender-based approach could help to reduce health inequalities and increase the success of people’s adherence to health guidelines and self-care-promoting interventions. Future studies should be addressed to explore the possible causations of such differences in more cultural-distant samples and at later stages of the current outbreak. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; health practices; stress; self-care; cross-cultural study COVID-19; health practices; stress; self-care; cross-cultural study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bermejo-Martins, E.; Luis, E.O.; Sarrionandia, A.; Martínez, M.; Garcés, M.S.; Oliveros, E.Y.; Cortés-Rivera, C.; Belintxon, M.; Fernández-Berrocal, P. Different Responses to Stress, Health Practices, and Self-Care during COVID-19 Lockdown: A Stratified Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052253

AMA Style

Bermejo-Martins E, Luis EO, Sarrionandia A, Martínez M, Garcés MS, Oliveros EY, Cortés-Rivera C, Belintxon M, Fernández-Berrocal P. Different Responses to Stress, Health Practices, and Self-Care during COVID-19 Lockdown: A Stratified Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052253

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bermejo-Martins, Elena; Luis, Elkin O.; Sarrionandia, Ainize; Martínez, Martín; Garcés, María S.; Oliveros, Edwin Y.; Cortés-Rivera, Cristian; Belintxon, Maider; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo. 2021. "Different Responses to Stress, Health Practices, and Self-Care during COVID-19 Lockdown: A Stratified Analysis" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052253

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